Polish National Growth/Resistance in Partitioned Poland (1795-1918)
The list author says: “Poland was erased off Europe’s map, by 1795, by three imperialistic powers: Germany (Prussia), Russia, and Austria. For 123 years, Poles had to develop their national existence under foreign rule. Owing to the fact that the 19th century was a time of great change and growth in Europe, this took on further urgency and significance.
Polish national resistance took on both violent and nonviolent forms. Examples of the former are the failed Insurrections of 1794, 1830, and 1863–in tsarist Russia. An outstanding example of the latter is the systematic nation-building by the Poles of West Prussia, in which they beat the Germans in such “German strengths” as organization and discipline.
Many of the successes of the Second Republic (1918-1939) were inherited from the 123 years of strenuous efforts by Poles living under foreign rule.”