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Expulsion of Poles by Germany


The partitions of Poland had ended the existence of a sovereign Polish state in the 18th century. With the rise of German nationalism in the late 19th century, Poles faced increasing discrimination. The first deportation of 30,000 Poles from the German Empire took place in 1885. While ideas of expelling Poles can be found in German political discourse of the 19th century, these ideas matured into full-scale plans during the First World War, calling for the removal of Polish population from Polish territories that were first annexed by the Russian Empire and then by Germany. Before and after 1939 the Nazis exploited these ideas when creating their Lebensraum concept of territorial aggression. Large scale expulsions of Poles occurred during World War II, when Nazi Germany started the Generalplan Ost campaign of ethnic cleansing in all Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany. Although the Nazis were not able to fully implement Generalplan Ost due to the war’s turn, up to 2 million Poles were affected by wartime expulsions with additional millions displaced or killed.

Therefore any recent German claims and complains about the expulsion of Germans from their former colonies is absolutely wrong and unjustified! ( admin.)

 

Origins of the idea

Since the creation of the German Empire in 1871, Poles constituted one of its largest minorities as a result of earlier expansions of Prussia, which seized historic lands possessed by Poland, was the very state that initiated the foundation of the German Empire. Prussia had seized territories with a Polish population by taking part in the Partitions of Poland and the Silesian Wars with Austria in the 18th century.

The rise of German nationalism was followed by the idea of pan-Germanism, demanding the unification of all Germans in one state, including the German diaspora. Some pan-Germanists believed that Germans were ethnically superior to other peoples — including Slavs, whom they viewed as inferior to the German “race” and culture. The Nazi concept of Lebensraum in turn demanded “living space” for German people, claiming overpopulation of Germany and alleged negative traits of heavy urbanisation in contrast to agricultural settlement. The desired territories were to be taken in the East. Both pan-Germanism and Lebensraum theory viewed Poles as an obstacle to German hegemony and prosperity as well as future expansion of the German state.

German Empire

German authorities, fearing that the possible rebirth of Poland would threaten German control over the territories annexed in her Partitions, sought to limit the number of Poles by forced Germanisation and by new wave of settlement by German colonists. Beginning with the Kulturkampf, laws were enacted to restrict Polish culture, religion, language and property. Bismarck initiated the Prussian deportations of 1885-1890, which affected some 30,000 Poles and Jews living in Germany who did not have German citizenship. This is described by E.J. Feuchtwanger as one the precedents to modern policies of ethnic cleansing. In 1887 Bernhard von Bülow, the future Chancellor of the German Empire, advocated expelling Poles by force from territories which were Polish-inhabited and slated to become part of Germany.

Already in 1908 Germany legalized eviction of Poles from their properties under pressure from pan-German nationalist groups who hoped this law would be used to reduce the number of Poles in the East by force.

First World War

During the First World War Germany planned to annex about 30,000 km² from Congress Poland for German colonisation. Most of the Polish population of those territories (about 2,000,000 people) was to be expelled into a small Polish puppet state. The remaining population was to be used as agricultural labour for German colonists. Germans expelled citizens of Kalisz.

Nazi Germany

File:Wysiedlanie-Zamojszczyzna.jpg

With the occupation of Poland following the German invasion of the country, Nazi policies were enacted upon its Polish population on an unprecedented scale. According to Nazi ideology Poles, as Untermensch, were seen as fit only for slavery and for further elimination in order to make room for the Germans.

ScreenHunter_2094 Mar. 21 14.15  A Polish prisoner (marked with an identifying patch bearing a “P” for Pole), Julian Noga, at the Flossenbürg concentration camp. Germany, between August 1942 and April 1945.

Adolf Hitler had plans for extensive colonisation of territories in the east of the Third Reich. Poland, itself, would – according to well documented German plans – have been cleared of Polish people altogether, as 20 million or so would have been expelled eventually. Up to 3 or 4 million Polish citizens (all peasants) believed be descendants of German colonists and migrants and therefore considered “racially valuable” would be Germanised and dispersed among the German population. Nazi leadership hoped that through expulsions to Siberia, famine, mass executions, and slave labour of any survivors Polish nation would be eventually completely destroyed.

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Second World War

World War II expulsions took place within two specific territories: one area annexed to Reich in 1939 and 1941, and another, the General Gouvernment, precursor to further expansion of German administrative settlement area. Eventually, as Adolf Hitler explained in March 1941, the General Government would be cleared of Poles, the region would be turned into a “purely German area” within 15–20 years and in place of 15 million Poles, 4–5 million Germans would live there, and the area would become “as German as the Rhineland.

Expulsions from Polish territories annexed by Nazi Germany

Generalplan Ost (GPO) was a Nazi plan to ethnically cleanse the territories occupied by Germany in Eastern Europe during World War II.

These expulsions were carried out so abruptly that ethnic Germans being resettled there were given homes with half-eaten meals on tables and unmade beds where small children had been sleeping at the time of expulsion. Members of Hitler Youth and the League of German Girls were assigned the task of overseeing such evictions to ensure that the Poles left behind most of their belongings for the use of the settlers.

According to Czesław Łuczak, Germans expelled the following numbers of Poles from territories annexed to the Reich in the period of 1939–1944:

Expulsion of Poles by Nazi Germany 1939–1944[9]
Name of territory Number of Expulsion Poles
Warthegau region 630 000
Silesia 81 000
Pomerelia 124 000
Białystok 28 000
Ciechanów 25 000
So called “Wild expulsions” of 1939 (Pomerelia mostly) 30 000 – 40 000
Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany (summary) 918 000 – 928 000
Zamość region 100 000 – 110 000
General Government (Proving grounds) 171 000
Warsaw (after Warsaw uprising) 500 000
Summary on occupied areas 1 689 000 – 1 709 000

Combined with “wild expulsions”, in four years 923,000 Poles were ethnically cleansed from territories Germany annexed into the Reich.[10]

File:Bundesarchiv R 49 Bild-0137, Polen, Wartheland, Aussiedlung von Polen.jpg

Expulsions from General Government

On the territories of the German protoctorate called General Government there were two main areas of expulsions committed by the German state. The protectorate itself was seen as temporary measure, and served as a concentration camp for Poles to perform hard labour furthering German industry and war effort. Eventually it was to be cleared of Poles also.

Zamość

116,000 Poles were expelled from the Zamość region as part of Nazi plans for establishment of German colonies in the conquered territories. Zamość itself was to be renamed Himmlerstadt, later changed to Pflugstadt (Plough City), that was to symbolise the German “Plow” that was to “plough” the East. Additionally almost 30,000 children were kidnapped by German authorities from their parents for potential Germanisation.

Germanizacja polskich dzieci

This led to massive resistance (see Zamość Uprising).

Warsaw

In October 1940, 115 thousand Poles were expelled from their homes in central Warsaw to make room for the Jewish Ghetto, constructed there by German authorities.

After the failure of the Warsaw Uprising, 500,000 people were expelled from the city alone as punishment by German authorities.

Demographic estimates

It is estimated that between 1.6 and 2 million people were expelled from their homes during the German occupation of Poland. Only the German organized expulsions affected directly 1,710,000 Poles.Additionally, 2.5 to 3 million Poles were taken from Poland as labourers to Germany to support the Nazi war effort These numbers do not include people arrested by the Germans and sent to Nazi concentration camps.

In many instances, Poles were given between 15 minutes and 1 hour to collect their personal belongings (usually no more than 15 kilograms per person) before they were removed their homes and transported east (see: deportations) On top of that about 5 million Poles were sent to German concentration camps. A total of about 6 million Polish citizens were killed during the war. All these actions resulted in significant changes in Polish demographics at the end of the war.

 

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http://abuse.wikia.com/wiki/Expulsion_of_Poles_by_Germany

 

The Soviet Union laid claim to the part of Eastern Poland which was assigned to the Soviets in the Hitler-Stalin Pact of 1939. The Polish residents of these areas were also expelled. Millions of Poles were driven from their homes by the Germans and by the Soviets during World War Two, and resettlements continued after the war.

================

Expelled from the Zamosc region during WWII

German actions – (involved primarily Family members living in the area of Zamosc).

  1. “Test trial” expulsions – November and December 1941 – 6 villages. (Wysokie – November 8, 1941).

2. Peak period of expulsions: stage I – November 28, 1942 to March 1943 – 116 villages. (Sitaniec – December 6, 1942), Stage II – from June to August 1943 – 171 villages (with pacification operations).

3. Around 100-110 000 Polish inhabitants were expelelled, including 30 000 children – if racially “clean”, destined for germanisation. Only about 800 children were recovered after the war. Most of the people expelled were sent as slave labour in Germany or to concentration camps, many were killed.

Soviet (USSR) actions – (involved primarily Family members who originated from the area, but moved away earlier).

1. 1937-1938, “cleansing” operation – mass deportation of Poles who still lived in former polish territories, lost at the time of the Poland’s “Partitioning” and after WWI and from the “autonomous regions” of “Marchlewszczyzna” and “Dzierzynszczyzna”.

2. 1939-1941, USSR repressions against Poles and Polish citizens – after Soviet invasion of Poland on September 17, 1939: Deportations from the “Kresy” (Borderlands), 1939-1941 – 700 000, POW’s – 240 000 (camps – Starobielsk, Ostaszkow, Kozielsk, places of murder – Katyn, Twer, Charkow), arrested – 50 000, drafted into the Red Army – 150 000, into Strojbatallions – 100 000.

3. 1944-1946, repressions after the Soviet Army re-entered the Polish territory and established a Communist Regime; continuation of the 1939-1941 policies and persecution of the WWII Underground Resistance organization members.

4. 1944-1946 – first repatriation (“depatriation”) of the polish inhabitants of the pre-WWII eastern polish territories (“Kresy”), after their annexation and incorporation into the Soviet Union.

5. 1955-1959 – second repatriation of the Poles from the former polish territories.

(..) Polish operation of the NKVD – (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polish_operation_of_the_NKVD)

The operation occurred approximately from August 25, 1937 to November 15, 1938. According to the archives of the NKVD, 111,091 Poles were sentenced to death and 28,744 were sentenced to labor camps, 139,835 in total.

http://www.wajszczuk.pl/english/drzewo/tekst/wysiedleni.htm

 

 

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15 comments on “Expulsion of Poles by Germany

  1. ROBERT JAROSZ
    March 21, 2016

    German cultural heritage in Eastern Europe:

    1. the production of soaps from fat of Slavs and Jews, 2. production of lampshades and handbags from Slavic human skin, 3. mass, planned extermination of Slavs, 4. effective germanization of Slavs, 5. construction of concentration camps for the Slavs, 6. burning and demolition of Slavic cities and villages, 7. stealing of hundreds of thousands of Slavic children and their germanization to improve the racial situation of Germania, 8 theft of land and buildings of Slavs in order to transfer them to the Germans, 9 theft of private property of Slavs – paintings, cars, home furnishings, etc., 10. stealing of gold, silver, currencies from lands and banks of Slavs, 11. gold recovery techniques from the dead bodies of Slavs – extracting gold teeth, 12. inciting and instigating hostilities among the Slavs so that they hated and killed one another for the glory and might of IV Reich – pitting Ukrainians against Poles and Russians, Slovaks against Czechs, Croats against Serbs, Poles against Russians!

    • HKW
      March 21, 2016

      I don’t necessarily agree with the first two points of your commentary as I don’t posses enough evidence in regard to this matter. Do you? Lets stick to the documented facts and confirmed truth. No need to exaggerate…

  2. Pingback: Expulsion of Poles by Germany | Gawronski Rafzen's Blog

  3. tri vium
    April 4, 2016

    HKW- are there any books written by White Polish Christian People , autobio or bio, about life and conditions in Concentration Camps? First hand experience. Can you provide a list. In English. Or on line in Polish.
    It is very tiresome dredging for information when 99% of the sites are about JEWS or by Jews.
    The reason for my interest is that the West Alt Right Movement is so pro Hitler and Nazi superiority that it is living in cuckoo land. All young, @ 30, and uneducated. Desperate for any straw to clutch, it’s holding onto German Greatness for dear life. No evidence for this. Surreal!
    Some talk of escape to Eastern Europe.
    —————————————————–
    HKW- on the site = bieganski the blog —-Danusha Goska ,USA -she claims to be a Polish woman converted to the ways of the Jews. At first glance the site seemed very pro Polish. However, it is extremely pro Jewish. Converts Fanaticism? Can Jews be Polish? Jews help their tribe, only. From what I’ve read, Polish Christians were always weary of Jews during expulsions, because of the Jews eagerness to condemn Poles. What do you think of her work?
    —————————————————-
    —————————————————-

    @ R J – Germans on Polish Land = German Peasants escaping German Princelings found peace and land in Poland, changed local laws and villages to suit themselves and professed allegiance to Germany.
    Upper Silesia, pop.,1939; 4,404 000 Poles – 98,000 Germans= 100% German land.
    @ soap/ lampshades and Poles on ‘Poland Forum’ = Please, ” STOP!” the BS.
    Romantic notions are a bad look when the internet is right in front of your nose!
    Believe nothing – check everything!

    • HKW
      April 5, 2016

      I am using my friend’s computer to respond to you as mine has crushed just recently. There is much going on..I think I am being targeted. I hope I have not lost folders with collected information and photos. My friend is working on it. I will get back to blogging once all is fixed.

      • Rob Veggett
        April 5, 2016

        Keep everything on a large-capacity portable hard drive

      • HKW
        April 5, 2016

        I must admit I am an amateur, but I’ve learnt my lesson. I do know already that I might be able to recover quite a bit of collected material. Not all though… Still working on it. Someone suggested Linux, Ubuntu as the safest of systems. Fair bit of downloading goes on right now.

    • ROBERT JAROSZ
      April 5, 2016

      German cultural heritage in Eastern Europe:

      1. the production of soaps from fat of Slavs and Jews, 2. production of lampshades and handbags from Slavic human skin, 3. mass, planned extermination of Slavs, 4. effective germanization of Slavs, 5. construction of concentration camps for the Slavs, 6. burning and demolition of Slavic cities and villages, 7. stealing of hundreds of thousands of Slavic children and their germanization to improve the racial situation of Germania, 8 theft of land and buildings of Slavs in order to transfer them to the Germans, 9 theft of private property of Slavs – paintings, cars, home furnishings, etc., 10. stealing of gold, silver, currencies from lands and banks of Slavs, 11. gold recovery techniques from the dead bodies of Slavs – extracting gold teeth, 12. inciting and instigating hostilities among the Slavs so that they hated and killed one another for the glory and might of IV Reich – pitting Ukrainians against Poles and Russians, Slovaks against Czechs, Croats against Serbs, Poles against Russians!

      • HKW
        April 5, 2016

        I am rather sceptical to believe in:
        “… 1. the production of soaps from fat of Slavs and Jews,
        2. production of lampshades and handbags from Slavic human skin…”

      • Robert Jarosz
        April 6, 2016

        Go and visit some concenteation camps museums to get convinced of this sad truth.

      • HKW
        April 6, 2016

        I have visited camps and museums. Remember, those camps can also become theatres. Museum are created for a purpose too. Most of it is about the “Holocaust Industry”and peddling agenda for never ending compensations. Please refer to Norman Finkelstein.

      • Rob Veggett
        April 6, 2016

        i agree. I like Norman Finkelstein, David Cole, Hannah Arendt and the like. They love the truth and against mendacious Holocaust Industry. I’m only scandalized at the ignorance of the West of the real Holocaust of Poles and other Slavs so beautifully depicted by the US author of the Polish origin Richard C. Lucas in his book “The Forgotten Holocaust: The Poles Under German Occupation, 1939-1944”.

      • HKW
        April 7, 2016

        Very well said, Sir !

  4. Mm
    April 17, 2016

    ” There were made soap from human fat? And what about the experiments of Dr. Spanner?
    Auschwitz death camp built by the Nazis there, but the cartel from a combination of IG Farben (manufacturer cyclone B) and the Standard Oil Company, whose main co-owner David was a Jew? Rockefeller.Opierając on the work Ch.Highmana “Trading with the enemy” – standard Oil Company engineers have designed the gas chambers in Auschwitz. ”
    yt. Prawda za bramami Auschwitz 5/6

    • HKW
      April 17, 2016

      I don’t buy the soap making stories. Cannot comprehend it. By the way: What nationality were the Nazis?

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