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Connecting true geography and detailed unfolding of wide variety of crimes perpetrated by German/Ukrainian Nazis and jewish bolsheviks of Soviet Union on the Polish nation.

THE FATE OF POLISH OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS


THE FATE OF POLISH OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS

Polish soldiers, especially officers, were hunted down like animals, rounded up and detained in large numbers by the Soviet invaders and their collaborators. Among the collaborators were many Jews, who often formed self-appointed militias to help usher in Soviet rule. After their apprehension, the Polish captives were often mistreated in public and executed. Those, who refused to surrender their weapons were summarily shot. The scene of Polish prisoners of war being led along streets and roads often brought open rejoicing on the part of the Jewish population and even abuse and assaults directed at the Poles.
The spirit of the new era was abundantly clear to the endangered Polish military personnel. Once out of uniform, they had to hide first and foremost not from the Soviet invaders, who could scarcely tell them apart, but from local collaborators, among whom Jews figured prominently. As one Polish officer recalls,
… Roads were a nightmare. Ukrainians and Jews stealthily murdered soldiers returning home or handed them over to the NKVD. The militia or police was … mostly Jewish. They wore red armbands on their sleeves and were armed. They detested everything that was Polish. … He, who did not see this and did not live through it has no idea what a horrible hell they, the Jews, created on these Polish territories which the Bolsheviks occupied.
As soon as the Soviets entered Nowogrodek, Jews with red armbands came to the home of Const. Kazimierz Kosinski, who had left for Wilno earlier that day. Not finding him there, they harassed his terrified wife and demanded his bicycle.
In Rakow, near the Soviet border,
… The local Jews reacted hysterically at the sight of the Russian “benefactors”. They kissed [Soviet] tanks, tore Polish flags from buildings and trampled them, and spat at and verbally abused Polish soldiers whom they had captured somewhere. They seized a Polish commander, a captain of a company [Frontier Defence Corps], and led him triumphantly [and handed him over to the Soviets]. The entire group ganged up on this one defenseless person, ripping his shirt on the chest and shoving him around. As we watched this scene we were stunned and horrified. These were after all our neighbours, once ordinary, peaceful people. We had lived together for years. The children attended the same schools, played together and this was entirely natural for us. Our parents shopped [in their stores] … No one interfered with each other. … There were no grounds for animosity or conflict. So we could not comprehend what had possessed them, where this hatred came from.
According to a Jewish source, the newly formed “workers’ guard” in Pinsk, headed by Benjamin Dodiuk and composed mostly of Jews, apprehended Polish officers and policemen in that city and executed them. Patriotic Polish youth, who rallied to the defence of their country, were also not spared. Often they were turned in by ordinary Jews, even women, as the following Jewish account illustrates:
… I knew a woman called Bashke, the mother of four children. At the beginning of the war the woman hid in an orchard for protection from the air attacks. A Russian mounted soldier passing by was shot at by two young Poles, but he escaped unhurt. He dismounted from his horse to find out, who had fired the shots. The woman pointed to the two young men, and they were arrested.
Near Pinsk, Henryk Skirmuntt (no relation to Count Skirmunt mentioned below), a soldier in the Polish Army, was apprehended by a Jew with a red armband and bearing a rifle, who handed him over to the Soviets. As he was led into a courtyard packed with Polish soldiers, he was struck twice in the spine with the butt of a rifle.
In Lubieszow, a gang of Jewish teenagers attacked and beat up a Polish officer as he was leaving church. Throughout this region, after seizing arms and organizing themselves into bands of “people’s militia”, Jews terrorized the local Polish officials and inhabitants and shot at and apprehended Polish soldiers driven back by the German forces.
On his discharge from the Polish army in Luck (Volhynia) after the Soviet invasion, Zenobiusz Janicki made his way to his home town of Przebraze, 25 km away. Individual and small groups of soldiers returning from the front were frequently set upon by Ukrainians and Jews and robbed, on occasion even killed. In Przebraze, Janicki witnessed how his Jewish neighbour, Dawid Gilden, the proprietor of a grocery store, who had attained the rank of corporal in the Polish Army, accosted a Polish soldier on the road with a pistol and stole a blanket from him.
Aleksander Pluta, a company sergeant, was one of many soldiers, who tried to make his way back home after being discharged from his unit near Rowne, in Volhynia.
… We headed toward Rowne because there was a train station there. We tried to avoid the city so we followed paths in areas which were not built up. … However, near the city itself we had to enter its outskirts … There, patrols formed of NKVD men and Jews awaited us. They were young and hated Poles. They captured Polish officers, who tried to blend in. The Russians could not distinguish officers from soldiers. Jews were needed for that purpose. They also carried guns. Near the larger cities and in the centre of the cities Jews filled these functions themselves without Red Army men. Those they recognized as, or suspected of being, officers were led away somewhere farther. It was they [these officers], who were doubtlessly sent to Katyn and other death camps. We walked for several days and the same thing happened daily.
After surrendering their arms in Busk and receiving a pass to return to their homes, Polish soldiers were robbed of their bicycles, money and possessions en route by Ukrainian and Jewish bands and communist committees. After obtaining civilian clothes in a Polish settlement, they arrived in Wlodzimierz Wolynski, where they were arrested by Jews and delivered to the NKVD. Indeed, many Jews in that town donned red armbands and rushed to help the NKVD identify targeted Poles and round them up. Poles tried to avoid the streets and often went into hiding for fear of being lynched.
Two young Polish officer-cadets, who were released from service after the Soviet entry and were making their way home attempted to board a train in Luck, Volhynia. That town was overrun with self-appointed Jewish militiamen on the lookout for Polish military men. They disarmed Polish soldiers and apprehended officers. The two Poles were accosted by a group of young Jews with red armbands, who tore the Polish eagles off their caps while mocking them.
A hunt for Polish officers in Kowel was undertaken by local Jews. Similar reports come from Wisniowiec (Volhynia) and nearby Zbaraz, where:
… revolutionary committees were established consisting mostly of young Jews. In Polish uniforms and with red armbands, armed with rifles, they guard the buildings of their committees. They also stop soldiers and force them to enter the place. There, they strip-search them, most often looking for arms, and they humiliate them with foul language.
But it was not just the young “emancipated” Jews, though hardly card-carrying members of the communist party, who took part in spectacles like this, repeated again and again throughout Eastern Poland. In Skalat, a town near the Soviet border, on the 17 of September 1939, Orthodox Jews formed armed parties to chase down and apprehend Poles in anticipation of the Soviet entry.
… Groups of Orthodox Jews dressed in long, black or charcoal gaberdines with wide red armbands, their heads covered with black yarmulkas from which long side curls dangled, carried rifles with long bayonets. When an armed group like this ran, their gaberdines flew open and from under their black vests stood out their white ziziths [tassels] which hung down.
… On one of the side streets we saw this black band surround two Polish non-commissioned officers, who were walking unarmed. Quite animated, the Jews led the apprehended men away. Polish army men captured in this manner were then delivered to Red Army men or the NKVD as soon as the Soviet army entered the town. Many of those apprehended by the Jewish militia later lost their lives in Katyn and other places of Soviet genocide. … [Polish] policemen caught by the Jews were executed immediately by Red Army men.
We encountered more and more of these organized groups in black gaberdines on the streets. We left Skalat in a hurry. … After columns of Soviet tanks rolled through the city without stopping and moved onward, the Jews, who were the largest group of residents of Skalat, formed their own Red militia. They apprehended and imprisoned Polish soldiers and policemen. They even prepared a joyful, official welcome to greet the armies of the Soviet aggressor, when they entered the town. Skalat was thus taken over by Jewish irredentists.
In Zloczow, pieces of red cloth were hung from windows and balconies and Polish soldiers were fired at in the streets. Polish soldiers were apprehended and disarmed by Jewish communists and Ukrainians. On September 19, Sergeant Jan Bernard Solinski of the Frontier Defence Corps and his colleagues were ordered by a captain of the Red Army, a Jew, to leave the premises, where they had taken refuge and to surrender their arms. A large and highly agitated crowd of Jews and Ukrainians surrounded the Poles. They were screaming and chanting and they threatened the Poles saying: … Your Poland has come to an end. We will now be in charge.
In Sasow, a small town near Zloczow, the newly formed militia, consisting of Ukrainians and Jews, apprehended more than twenty Polish soldiers and policemen and handed them over to the Soviet army. After a provocation (in which a grenade was thrown into the room in the school where they were held), the Poles were executed by the Soviets. One of the main organizers of the “red militia” was Lipa Halpern, a prewar communist, who was instrumental in the deportation of more than a dozen Polish families to the Gulag in February 1940. Later Halpern worked in the NKVD regional command in Olesko.
In Czortkow, a Jewish and Ukrainian rabble followed Soviet soldiers around town disarming Polish officers and soldiers, whom they cursed and insulted verbally. The captured Poles were then driven to the jail.
In Nowe Brusno, near Rawa Ruska, Abraham Starkman and his brother, whose father was a well-to-do Jewish farmer, took charge of the local “workers’ militia” which disarmed Polish soldiers and executed a few Polish officers captured near that village.
In Jaryczow, near Lwow,
… The little town was just going through its first spasm of revolution. Some Polish officers, described as “spies” – God knows on whose behalf – were arrested. The Ukrainian nationalists formed a procession with flags and banners, which they followed through the streets, with revolvers in their hands. Young Jews formed another procession, with a red flag and a portrait of Stalin, carried exactly like a holy ikon. The two groups finally came face to face and quarrelled, with the result that they together looted the store of the Polish Spirits Monopoly. When everyone had got drunk, they wanted to organize a “pogrom” of the Poles in the town. Fortunately, there were too many Poles to be safely attacked and in the meantime someone launched the rumour that the Germans were coming.
Instead of the Germans, two Bolshevik commissars arrived with a platoon of troops a few hours afterwards. The Ukrainian leaders turned meek and silent, as two of them had been arrested. The Jews all went home and sat tight there, while the Bolshevik commissar inquired about the local intelligentsia.
Conditions in Lwow were described by many witnesses: Polish soldiers, especially officers, were disarmed, abused verbally and physically, and hauled off by the “red militia”, composed mostly of Jews and Ukrainians, and by ordinary citizens to Soviet posts. This base conduct toward fellow citizens sometimes elicited a feeling of disgust on the part of ordinary, decent Soviet soldiers.
… After the arrival of the Soviets in Lwow on September 23, 1939, I witnessed several incidents on the part of Jews toward Poles. The first was the welcome given to the arriving Soviet army. Jews seized weapons from Polish soldiers as they [the Jews] kicked and mocked them. They tied red ribbons to the barrels of stolen rifles and red armbands on their sleeves. I saw how one Polish soldier, who was already disarmed, was surrounded by a Jewish patrol consisting of three self-styled armed militiamen with red armbands on their sleeves (this took place just as the Soviet army was entering Lwow); they tore the military hat from his head and were jostling him around. At that time a Soviet patrol came by and when they saw what was happening, they disarmed the Jewish patrol, gave them a boot and told them to run off. It was a painful sight to see a disarmed Polish soldier being attacked by Polish Jews.
A group of Jews with red armbands dragged Lt.-Col. Tadeusz Feliks Prauss, the commander of the 6 Air Force Regiment, out of his house, pushing him around and beating him on his head and face. They thrust him in a carriage, paraded him publicly as an “enemy of the people” and spat at him. Eventually, Col. Prauss ended up in the Soviet prison camp in Starobelsk and in the Spring of 1940, he was murdered by the Soviets in Kharkov.
A uniformed Polish officer was captured on Meizels Street by two Jews with red armbands and rifles. After abusing him, they led him to the “Brygidki” prison.
A former student of the renowned Polish-Jewish scholar, Hugo Steinhaus, by the name of Borek, was arrested in his home after being denounced to the NKVD as a reserve officer in the Polish army by his Jewish orderly.
When, in November 1939, Witold Rapf went to stay with his crippled uncle, an ex-colonel of the Polish army, in Lwow,
… Two NKVD officers, accompanied by three young Jews wearing red armbands, came at night and arrested my uncle. They made offensive and disgracing remarks, pointing a to a painting of Jesus and a picture of Pilsudski.
Pointing out to the Soviets the direction of Polish troop movements and fleeing Polish soldiers became a common pastime. In Kuty, near Kolomyja, the self-proclaimed Jewish militia quickly informed Soviet tank drivers that a Polish military truck had just departed for the nearby Romanian border. Unable to overtake it, the tank fired a machine gun at the truck killing a Polish army quartermaster by the name of Tadeusz Dolega-Mostowicz, a well-known Polish literary figure.
Near Sniatyn, three Polish officers in plainclothes were apprehended crossing the River Prut to Romania in October 1939. They were detained and briefly imprisoned in Kolomyja before being deported to the Gulag. Their interrogations were carried out with the assistance of local Jews, among them a doctor, who acted as interpreters. In one case, the doctor himself levelled abuse at one of the Polish officers, who were accused of being spies, and called him a “liar”. When he moved to strike the Polish officer, his over-zealousness was too much to bear for even the hardened Soviet functionaries, who then dispensed with the collaborator’s services.
A Polish officer, disguised as soldier, was trying to make his way to the Polish-Hungarian border, when he was apprehended by Ukrainian militiamen near the village of Skole. Suspected of being a Polish officer, he was taken to the village and handed over to two Jewish militiamen, who took him to the Soviet commissar for questioning. A local Jewish woman, who acted as secretary, mistress and Russian interpreter for the commissar, … embellished [the officer’s] confession with communist jargon learned obviously from propaganda leaflets. During his interrogation captured Polish state employees, policeman and gamekeepers were brought in by the militiamen, who carried out their duties with enthusiasm; the commissar sent them to the local prison. Since the officer had false identification, his guise of being a simple soldier was eventually accepted and he was released to go home.
A Polish soldier recalled with shock, what he experienced and felt, when the first Soviet soldiers arrived in the outskirts of Lwow:
… About 5 p.m., we heard some unusual voices and a lot of noise on the street … I could not resist the temptation to go out and see what was happening. I observed a very strange scene: a small group of people – many of them Jews, and evidently communists – were surrounding a lone and scared looking Soviet soldier and screaming anti-Polish slogans: Down with the Polish government!! … Down with Poland!! … Long live the Soviet Union!!
I could not believe my eyes! Why would these people be so happy? Why would the Jews be against the Polish government and Poland itself? They had a very good life in Poland, and were free. With the exception of some small minority [of non-Jews], no one bothered them before the war. They were able to do whatever they wanted and most of them were well-to-do. What an unpleasant surprise it was for me to witness a scene like this. … I could not help but express my dismay and disgust when I turned to a tall, middle-aged man and asked him why these people were so happy. I didn’t quite finish what I was going to say, when he turned to me menacingly and said in a loud voice: “Are you not happy, you son-of-a-bitch?! I’ll show you!” He then started towards me with his not-so-friendly intentions. Obviously, I did not make him happy with my remarks and questions, but I could only rectify the situation by running away towards the bunker, where I would feel safe with my friends.
“My God! Where am I?! These people are traitors”, I mumbled to myself for quite some time as a result of this unfortunate episode.
With the entry of the Soviets, groups of young Jews wearing red armbands and armed with rifles and pistols appeared on the streets of Wilno. According to one Jewish observer, they disarmed Polish soldiers … in an ugly manner and with great satisfaction. A Jew would spit in the face of a Polish soldier after taking his rifle. Another eyewitness reported:
… In the streets, Jewish children latched on to Soviet military vehicles and joyfully greeted the occupiers. Militia patrols with red armbands, formed mostly of Wilno Jews and communists, were everywhere. I will never forget the sight of a Polish soldier walking down a street (apparently on his way home) without a belt and carrying a haversack. Suddenly a group of teenagers detached themselves from a Soviet truck and, undoubtedly wanting to demonstrate its fighting spirit and enmity toward the remnants of Polish statehood, spat at that emaciated soldier and tried to rip the buttons off his military coat. And – imagine this! – the reaction of the Soviet soldiers was entirely different, from what that swarm of teenagers turned savage expected. They told them to leave the soldier in peace explaining: ‘… He’s just an ordinary soldier. Don’t harass him’. And that viperous and squalid group of callow youth left shamefaced.
The main train station in Wilno was a particularly hazardous place to venture since it was infested with NKVD agents and the largely Jewish “citizens’ militia”, whose main task was to stop suspicious people, especially Polish officers out of uniform. Suspects were followed to their homes and their credentials were checked. Jews in the service of the Bolsheviks also carried out nighttime raids of suspect Polish homes to look for arms. About 80 percent of those arrested were Poles. Soviet reports sang the praises of the predominantly Jewish “orkers’ guard”, who maintained “order” and confiscated weapons: … The mood among the members of the Workers’ Guard is elated; they carry out every order willingly and with enthusiasm.
Numerous reports speak of the abusive treatment meted out to Polish prisoners of war by Jews in Eastern Poland (this appears to have been a predilection of the Jewish minority, as there are no reports of Ukrainians or Belorussians taking part in such activities). This conduct – reminiscent of the displays of hatred directed toward Polish prisoners of war by pro-Nazi German civilians – ranks among the most shameful episodes in occupied Europe and one about which Poles quite understandably retain bitter memories.
When a large crowd formed as the Soviets marched Polish prisoners of war along the highway to Monasterzyska, near Buczacz, young Jewish hooligans, who lined the street, spat at the Polish soldiers and threw rocks at them. As one witness recalled, the Poles, who came out to see their loved ones being led away, were appalled by this callous conduct.
… They must have been encouraged by their parents to perform such base deeds. My mother could not stand by idly looking at this any longer and took them to task. When that did not help, she grabbed one of them by the collar and gave him a light jerk. All of a sudden, out of nowhere, some older Jews appeared with red armbands on their coats and wanted to push my mother into the convoy led by the Soviets. Some Ukrainian women we knew, saved her and me by raising a terrible outcry. This must have frightened the Jews because they ran off. Unfortunately, the young Jews continued to hurl insults at our soldiers.
These brief incidents stuck in my mother’s mind for a long time. But that did not prevent her from sheltering Jews during the German occupation at risk to our lives. Perhaps among them were those who, in 1939, wanted to hand my mother over to the Soviets.
When the Soviets led captured Polish soldiers, with their hands tied behind their backs, through the streets of Skala Podolska, crowds of Jews and Ukrainians converged to observe the show, screaming at them: … Kill the Polish swines! and … The Polish swine is dead!
An eyewitness observed Jews jeering and spitting at disarmed Polish soldiers and policemen assembled in the courtyard of the police station in Stanislawow before being marched to the local jail. Many of the Jews, who had lined Kaminski Street along with their children, wore red armbands and publicly derided the Poles as they passed in front of them.
In Dolina, near Stryj, where Jews greeted the invading Soviet army with flowers and offered them bread and salt (a traditional greeting), a Polish officer was slapped in the face by a local Jew, who screamed at him: … There will be no more Poland of the “Pans”.
On the day after the Soviet entry into Dubno (Volhynia),
… Two young Jews, communist militiamen, brought two Polish officers out of a house – a colonel and a lieutenant. In the town square, amid an entire group of militia (who were, of course, all armed with rifles), there stood a commissar of a senior rank, a young lad with a markedly Semitic face. The officers were taken to him. The commissar said a few words to the colonel in Russian and then hit him hard in the face. The colonel took the blow in silence and hung his head …
In some cases, however, Polish officers could not bear the public humiliation. A Polish woman recalled a scene, she witnessed in Druzkopol (Volhynia), upon the Soviet entry:
… From a crowd of her own people [who had assembled to greet the Soviets] a young Jewish woman emerged. She approached a Polish officer and delivered a swinging blow to his face. … The Polish officer calmly pulled a gun out of his holster (creating a panic among the rabble), held it against his temple and pulled the trigger.
In Bialozorka, near Krzemieniec, the sight of long lines of Polish prisoners of war aroused provocative cries and laughter on the part of Jews and Ukrainians. The Polish captives were met by a group of young Jews, among them a young woman, who came out of the Polish State Police building dressed in Polish military coats stripped of their shoulder-straps. Wearing red armbands, they insulted and mocked the Polish officers from a distance: … You Polish swine. … Your rule is over. Take those roosters [a disparaging reference to Poland’s national emblem, the white eagle] off your hats! The first officer they struck was a general, whose hat went flying off into the mud as he was hit in the head. This was a signal for the young Jews to collectively ill-treat a group of Polish officers, who had been separated from the column of prisoners of war.
K. T. Celny, a young Pole who accompanied his father, a major in the reserve of the medical corps of the Polish army, encountered the following reception in the vicinity of Lwow:
… As we approached every Ukrainian village, we were fired upon. In towns, we were also shot at by the Jewish militia, armed with stolen Polish army rifles and wearing red armbands. As we approached the outskirts of Lwow, we came upon a tragicomic spectacle: in a meadow beside the main road, about ten of the Jewish militiamen were guarding a sizable squadron of one of the elite Polish cavalry regiments. Soviet tank forces had disarmed the Polish regiment and had assigned their new “allies” – the Jews, to guard the Poles. I recall a feeling of pain and disgust that those, who were Polish citizens should behave so treacherously.
Another Polish soldier reported a similar occurrence in that region:
… After my capture by Soviet troops in 1939, I was guarded by a Jewish militia, who often treated former Polish officers with the utmost brutality.
According to Stanislaw Karlinski, the behaviour of the Jewish “guards” even occasioned interventions on the part of the Soviets.
Additional examples of the despicable behaviour of the Jewish masses of Lwow toward Polish prisoners of war, who were showered with abuse and whose cap eagles and military distinctions were torn from their uniforms, are noted by Gen. Wladyslaw Anders and others.
Even former acquaintances could not be counted on for an act of kindness. When Stanislaw Milczarczyk, a reserve non-commissioned officer in the Frontier Defence Corps, was taken captive and held in a freight wagon full of Polish prisoners of war, he spotted a Jew by the name of Szmul from his native Ciechanow, guarding the stationary train. He called out to Szmul, now an armed “red” militiaman, to bring some water for the thirsty prisoners. Enraged, Szmul rushed over to wagon, hurled insults at Milczarczyk, and jabbed at him with his bayonet. Just a short while ago, Szmul had sold fruit to Milczarczyk, who owned a small grocer’s shop in his home town.
Near Kostopol (Volhynia), just before their execution by the Soviets,
… When the column was being marched through the town, the local Jews spat at the Polish soldiers, heaped the foulest epithets upon them, and threw rocks at them.
As a column of Polish prisoners of war was being led by Red Army men through the nearly empty streets of Wlodzimierz Wolynski in the early morning hours, a young Jew mocked them yelling: You sons-of-bitches. You’ll now get what you deserve. It’s good that they’re taking you away. Some Polish women, who stood nearby, were in tears – the contrast was striking.
Gen. Jan Lachowicz filed the following report about his internment in Kowel (Volhynia):
… On September 28, we received orders to “pack up” and leave our cells. In the prison yard, we met up with most of the officers of our platoon and many others from various military formations. We were escorted in a column to the barracks by a civilian guard with red armbands and former Polish soldiers – unfortunately, all of them were Polish Jews. We moved out … Our escort consisted of the same (Jews) with armbands and Polish rifles … After a time, a rabble of young Jews gathered on each side of our column, marching along with us on the sidewalks and shouting insults at us. What is worse, they soon began to spit at us and here and there even pelted our column with rocks.
In Zaleszczyki, near the Romanian border, a Polish prisoner of war recalled his fate, typical of many Polish soldiers:
… On September 19, I was taken captive by the Bolsheviks. I was wounded and was taken to the hospital in Zaleszczyki. Our fate was horrible. The NKVD handed us over to Jews, armed with rifles and guns. These were Polish Jews in civilian clothes with armbands. They treated the wounded soldiers with unusual brutality. They struck us and kicked us. They searched out officers and handed them over to the NKVD. They screamed at us that we were bourgeois lackeys, who had sucked their blood, and that they would now suck our blood. They hurled many insults at us which I won’t repeat because they were so vulgar. They heaped profanities on us.
Attitudes had not changed, when bedraggled Polish prisoners were led in a column through Uman’, in Soviet Ukraine, the following summer: … The sidewalks are full of Jews. Some of them yell at us: Polish “Pans”. … They look at us with hostility.
The treatment of Polish prisoners of war by the ordinary Jewish civilian population of Soviet-occupied Eastern Poland has no parallel anywhere else in occupied Europe. At that time, in German-occupied part of Poland, Jews were not being hunted down in this manner (except by ethnic Germans, as a Jew from Lodz recorded on September 9: … Local German youths lie in ambush, waiting for passing Jews, mercilessly attacking them, snipping beards, plucking hair until blood flows, aglow with sadistic enjoyment at their wild sport, but rather, like the Poles, faced random terror. There, the plight of prisoners of war and refugees, regardless of nationality or religion, elicited widespread sympathy on the part of the Poles. As one Jew, who served in the Polish army put it:
… What an ideal brotherhood existed between Poles and Jews! … How generously and hospitably the Polish peasant received refugees!
Among Jews in Eastern Poland, however, such solidarity rarely extended beyond offering relief to Jewish refugees from the German occupation zone.
Nor is there any record of Jewish captives being publicly harassed and abused by Poles, as Poles were in the Soviet occupation zone. When Jews, whether soldiers or civilians, were interned or fled or were expelled from their homes by the Germans, many Poles came to their assistance. Moreover, there are numerous Jewish accounts from the German occupation zone from this same period attesting to the fact that Jewish soldiers were frequently protected by their fellow Polish soldiers, when asked to identify themselves by the Germans (the vast majority of Jews in the Polish army did, however, identify themselves to the Germans as Jews. Their immediate fate did not prove to be worse than that of Polish soldiers – almost all of the Jews were soon released and allowed to return to their homes. On the other hand, many Polish soldiers were held in camps for the entire war).
The hunt for and denunciation of Polish officers and officials by local collaborators did not subside with the Soviet entry. It continued well into the Soviet occupation, as the following examples show:
Still making their way home to Volhynia in October 1939, two soldiers, who had served in the Frontier Defence Corps, were stopped by two Jewish militiamen armed with Polish rifles in Busk, north of Lwow. Knowing the fate that awaited them in the local commissariat, they seized their rifles and gave the Jewish militiamen a good thrashing before escaping. One of the Poles could not remain for long in his home town of Klewan, or afterwards in Lwow, because of the vigilance of the NKVD and Jewish militias. He was eventually apprehended near Malkinia in March 1940, when he attempted to cross over to the German occupation zone. While the Pole was interned in an NKVD prison, a young Jewish interpreter demonstrated great zeal in eliciting information from him in the course of his interrogation.
A group of fourteen members of the nascent Polish underground, the Union for Armed Struggle (Zwiazek Walki Zbrojnej, ZWZ – the precursor of the Home Army), was arrested in Lwow in March and April 1940. After undergoing show trials, all but one of them were executed the following February. Their families were deported to the Soviet interior. The chief interrogator, who subjected them to brutal torture during their detention in Lwow, was a Jew by the name of E. M. Libenson (Liebenson), a senior lieutenant of the NKVD. Libenson’s name also appears in other prisoners’ accounts as a sadistic torturer.
A Pole, whose remnant group of the defeated Polish army was captured by the Soviets as late as February 1940, recalled his imprisonment in Bialystok and Brzesc nad Bugiem, where he was told by a Jewish major of the NKVD that Poland would never rise again. The mood among the jailers, on learning of the defeat of France in June of that year, was indicative of which side and what values they were rooting for:
… The joy of the NKVD, consisting mostly of the Jews who interrogated us, was indescribable. They were elated. The Soviet Union would now divide Europe with Hitler. … Elated they drank for several days into a state of unconsciousness. That for us was the most difficult time. All hope had evaporated.

NEIGHBOURS ON THE EVE OF THE HOLOCAUST. POLISH-JEWISH RELATIONS IN SOVIET-OCCUPIED EASTERN POLAND, 1939-1941
Chapter IV ← V → Chapter VI

Source:
http://www.electronicmuseum.ca/PolandWW2/ethnic_minorities_occupation/paul_01/paul_01_5.html

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This entry was posted on November 25, 2014 by in War crimes, Zionists and tagged , , .

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WOLNI SŁOWIANIE

Celem jest wpłynięcie na pobudkę polskich Słowian, abyśmy odzyskali naszą ojczyznę

Tarig Anter on Protect & Reinvent Democracy

Protect Democracy & Expose Western Liberal Democracy

xebola

"Dla triumfu zła potrzeba tylko, by dobrzy ludzie nic nie robili"

Wirtualna Polonia BIS im. Włodka Kulińskiego

" - Wyśmiewani za niemodny patriotyzm, wierni Bogu i Ojczyźnie podnieśliśmy głowy."

AdNovum

Prawda zawsze zwycięża

M-forum A.V Live.

Najnowsze informacje , Polska i świat artykuły przedruki filmy zdjęcia i dokumenty.Unikatowe informacje i materiały które na innych portalach są cenzurowane z przyczyn politycznej poprawności.

Paradigm Shift 101

Looking at the world in a different light

WIERNI POLSCE SUWERENNEJ

Strona Stowarzyszenia Wierni Polsce Suwerennej

Niezłomni.com

Connecting true geography and detailed unfolding of wide variety of crimes perpetrated by German/Ukrainian Nazis and jewish bolsheviks of Soviet Union on the Polish nation.

WOLNI SŁOWIANIE

Celem jest wpłynięcie na pobudkę polskich Słowian, abyśmy odzyskali naszą ojczyznę

Tarig Anter on Protect & Reinvent Democracy

Protect Democracy & Expose Western Liberal Democracy

xebola

"Dla triumfu zła potrzeba tylko, by dobrzy ludzie nic nie robili"

Wirtualna Polonia BIS im. Włodka Kulińskiego

" - Wyśmiewani za niemodny patriotyzm, wierni Bogu i Ojczyźnie podnieśliśmy głowy."

AdNovum

Prawda zawsze zwycięża

M-forum A.V Live.

Najnowsze informacje , Polska i świat artykuły przedruki filmy zdjęcia i dokumenty.Unikatowe informacje i materiały które na innych portalach są cenzurowane z przyczyn politycznej poprawności.

Paradigm Shift 101

Looking at the world in a different light

WIERNI POLSCE SUWERENNEJ

Strona Stowarzyszenia Wierni Polsce Suwerennej

Niezłomni.com

Connecting true geography and detailed unfolding of wide variety of crimes perpetrated by German/Ukrainian Nazis and jewish bolsheviks of Soviet Union on the Polish nation.

Niezależne Media Podlasia

Just another WordPress.com site

SKRiBH

zeskrobywanie nieprawdy i czepianie się słów

Connecting true geography and detailed unfolding of wide variety of crimes perpetrated by German/Ukrainian Nazis and jewish bolsheviks of Soviet Union on the Polish nation.

Wolna Polska – Wiadomości

Connecting true geography and detailed unfolding of wide variety of crimes perpetrated by German/Ukrainian Nazis and jewish bolsheviks of Soviet Union on the Polish nation.

Spory o historię i współczesność

Prywatny blog historyczny Bohdana Piętki

Kekusz.pl

Connecting true geography and detailed unfolding of wide variety of crimes perpetrated by German/Ukrainian Nazis and jewish bolsheviks of Soviet Union on the Polish nation.

ProstoPoPolsku

Connecting true geography and detailed unfolding of wide variety of crimes perpetrated by German/Ukrainian Nazis and jewish bolsheviks of Soviet Union on the Polish nation.

Wiadomości

Connecting true geography and detailed unfolding of wide variety of crimes perpetrated by German/Ukrainian Nazis and jewish bolsheviks of Soviet Union on the Polish nation.

Connecting true geography and detailed unfolding of wide variety of crimes perpetrated by German/Ukrainian Nazis and jewish bolsheviks of Soviet Union on the Polish nation.

Vanishing American II

OURSELVES AND OUR POSTERITY

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