Justice4Poland.com

Connecting true geography and detailed unfolding of wide variety of crimes perpetrated by German/Ukrainian Nazis and jewish bolsheviks of Soviet Union on the Polish nation.

Polish inventions, inventors and intelectuals


Poland is a country known for many distinguished individuals like John Paul II, Frederic Chopin, Marie Curie, Joseph Conrad or Nicolaus Copernicus.

But can you name some commonly known and used inventions that would be devised by Poles?

Poland is generally associated with things like great beer, beautiful women and Polish sausage ( kiełbasa), but it seems to some that throughout the ages it hasn’t bred any significant inventors. This, however, couldn’t be further from the truth. Poles have in fact created things that I bet you have heard of, or maybe even used.

So, there we go:

1. Bulletproof vest

Yes, you read that right. The bulletproof vest was in fact created by a Polish inventor called Jan Szczepanik in 1901. The vest was made of multiple layers of silk that were specifically woven so that they could stop bullets. The invention turned out be quite successful and the cloth used in the vest passed the practical test when it prevented the assassination of Spanish king Alfonso XIII. In 1906 in Paris, he was traveling in a carriage padded with Szczepanik’s special silk when suddenly a bomb exploded. Thanks to the bulletproof material, the king was unharmed and Szczepanik gained himself quite a fame. Everybody should agree that his acclaim was well-earned, right?

2. Melex (golf cart)

Everybody knows these little cars, since they are a common view on every golf field. What most people are unaware of, however, is that all the golfers should be extremely thankful to a small company from a Polish town Mielec. It was established in 1971 and dedicated solely to producing small, electric vehicles that the golfers found very convenient to move around with, so that they wouldn’t have to carry their have bags on their shoulders. At first the USA were the company’s main outlet, but later on the carts started to sell like hot cakes everywhere else and, obviously, they are still very popular today.

3. Mine detector

It’s an invention that helped the British Army win the battle of El-Alamain during World War II and was used during the Invasion of Normandy, so the significance of the devise is pretty clear. It was developed by two Polish lieutenants – Józef Kosacki and Andrzej Garboś at the end of year 1941. It seems that they were very humble men, since they never patented their invention, but instead gave it as a gift to the British Army. It was in common use until 1995. Talk about a nice present!

4. Movie projector

The first thought upon reading this might be: „Who are you trying to fool?

Everybody knows that it’s the Lumière brothers that invented the movie projector”. Well, nobody is going to deny that. The thing is that a year before the Lumières patented their invention, a Polish inventor called Kazimierz Prószyński finished working on his so-called pleograph, which basically worked the same way as its French successor. So why didn’t Prószyński get international acclaim for his devise? Nobody knows, really. Being in fact the first person to ever build a machine able to project images, he should be on the pages of every history book. Especially considering the fact that he also constructed the first ever hand-held camera, which he called an aeroscope.

5. Paraffin lamp

Well, maybe this one isn’t used as commonly as, say, bulletproof vest, but in its time it was a real breakthrough for science. Earlier, having a lamp in the house was a quite tiring experience, since the oil used as fuel wasn’t very efficient. Then, in 1853, Ignacy Łukasiewicz found a way to distill a substance called kerosene (or paraffin) from seep oil.

The paraffin lamp was soon found in any household. Łukasiewicz also introduced first modern street lamps in Europe and created first oil refinery. And it’s pretty obvious that oil refineries are quite significant nowadays.

6. The Walkie-Talkie

This one is a bit of a stretch, but what the hell. Another Chicago Pole was a vital part of the team that brought the world the first hand-held two-way radio communication device, originally known as the Handie-Talkie but now as the Walkie-Talkie.

Who invented it and why?
Henryk Magnuski (1909-1978) was born in Warsaw and found himself in New York at the outbreak of World War II in 1939. Finding work at the Galvin Manufacturing Corporation (later known as Motorola) he worked on the wartime project to produce a portable communications system for the United States Signal Corps that resulted in the SCR-300 (the radio you see strapped to some doomed character’s back in every WWII movie) and the SCR-536 (the classic hand held device about the size of a 1980s mobile phone with the press-to-talk function).

Without Walkie-Talkies nobody could have possibly thought of Star Trek communicators, and without Star Trek communicators nobody could have possibly thought of mobile phones, and without mobile phones ERA would have to deliver its nine million daily SMS ads by hand. Magnuski you fool, what have you done!

The Henry Magnuski Electrical and Computer Engineering professorship at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign is named in his honor. It is currently held by Professor Richard Blahut.
On October 6th, 2006, Henryk Magnuski was one of the first five inductees into the Illinois Engineering Hall of Fame.

—————————————————-

* Marie Curie, née Maria Sklodowska, was born in Warsaw on November 7, 1867, the daughter of a secondary-school teacher. She became involved in a students’ revolutionary organization and found it prudent to leave Warsaw, then in the part of Poland dominated by Russia, for Cracow, which at that time was under Austrian rule. In 1891, she went to Paris to continue her studies at the Sorbonne where she obtained Licenciateships in Physics and the Mathematical Sciences. She met Pierre Curie, Professor in the School of Physics in 1894 and in the following year they were married. She succeeded her husband as Head of the Physics Laboratory at the Sorbonne, gained her Doctor of Science degree in 1903, and following the tragic death of Pierre Curie in 1906, she took his place as Professor of General Physics in the Faculty of Sciences, the first time a woman had held this position. She was also appointed Director of the Curie Laboratory in the Radium Institute of the University of Paris, founded in 1914. The discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel in 1896 inspired the Curies in their brilliant researches and analyses which led to the isolation of polonium, named after the country of Marie’s birth, and radium. She eveloped methods for the separation of radium from radioactive residues in sufficient quantities to allow for its characterization and the careful study of its properties, therapeutic properties in particular. Her work is recorded in numerous papers in scientific journals and she is the author of Recherches sur les Substances Radioactives (1904), L’Isotopie et les Éléments Isotopes and the classic Traité’ de Radioactivité (1910). She received many honorary science, medicine and law degrees and honorary memberships of learned societies throughout the world. Together with her husband, she was awarded half of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1903. In 1911 she received a second Nobel Prize, this time in Chemistry, in recognition of her work in radioactivity.

  • Aleksander Wolszczan, was the first to  discover  planets outside our solar system.
  • Professor Hilary Koprowski invented an oral polio vaccine (Heine-Medin disease).
  • Orthopaedist Adam Gruca also invented various orthopaedic instruments and appliances.
  • Nikodem Cybulski discovered the hormones produced by the adrenal medulla (adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine) in 1895. Because these were the first hormones to be described, Cybulski may be regarded as a pioneer of endocrinology.
  • Ernest Malinowski developed and was responsible for the construction of the highest railway line in the world, Callao-La Oroya in Peru.
  • Rafał Modrzejweski designed many of the bridges in the United States, including the Benjamin Franklin Bridge in Philadelphia.
  • Stefan Drzewiecki became famous as the designer of some of the first submarines (1877). He was the first to establish aerodynamics laboratories. He also developed the  theory of screw propellers and later thehelical propulsion theory . He also constructed a new type of water turbine with lateral uptake. Designers Drzewiecki, Rogalski, and Wigura set up the RWD company, which produced sports planes. They also designed the RWD-5 sport plane, in which Stanisław Skarżyński flew across the Atlantic in 1933.
  • Janusz Groszkowski constructed the first oxygen-cathodemagnetron, which served as the basis for modern radars. It was in large part thanks to Groszkowski that it became possible to understand the methods used to construct of the German V-2 rockets.
  • Wacław Olszak was famous for his research in the theory of plasticity, which is used in the construction of large buildings, viaducts and bridges.
  • Rudolph Gundlach designed tanks and armoured cars, but is best known for his invention of the Gundlach Rotary Periscope.
  • Jerzy Dabrowski, the lead aeronautical engineer who designed the famous Polish PZL 37 Los Medium Bomber
  • Wladyslaw J. Swiatecki, who invented the slip bomb device (which the British claimed to have invented)
  • Stefan Bryla, 1886 – 1943, Construction engineer, welding pioneer – the designer of, among others, the first in Europe welded road bridge on the Sludwia River (1927) and high rise building Prudential in Warszawa (1932)
  • Romuald Adam Cebertowicz,   1814-1894, Hydrotechnician – the creator of electro-injection method of soil solidification
  • Jan Kazimierz Danysz , 1884-1914, Physicist – assistant of M.Curie-Sklodowska, creator of the first spectrometer beta
  • Jan Heweliusz, 1611-1687, Astronomer – the creator of Astronomical Observatory in Gdansk (1640), he constructed the biggest telescope in XVII century (lenght 50 m), elaborated maps of the Moon, discovered changes in magnetic declination
  • Mikolaj Kopernik(Copernicus), 1473-1543, Astronomer, mathematician, economist, physician – in the work De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) he presented heliocentric theory of the world, which he created.
  • Tadeusz Krwawicz, 1910, Ophthalmologist – inventor of tool for the removal of cataract, pioneer of eye cryiotherapy in Poland
  • Zbigniew Religa, 1938, Cardiologist – pioneer of heart transplantation in Poland, grafted an artificial valve, created from materials taken from human corpses (first time on the World, June 1995), creator of Cardiosurgery Development Foundation

While Poland’s military record are legendary, little or nothing has been said about Polish weapons development and technology during the war years. When Poland was invaded in 1939 some of the Polish intelligentsia managed to escape, first to Romania, then to France, and finally England. They continued their work underground. In fact, the Polish Underground was the largest Resistance movement in Europe. They were the only one of its kind to actively produce weapons and munitions.

Polish scientists and engineers made significant contributions to the Allied war effort ( that sadly wasn’t much appreciated), most notably Kosacki, who invented the Polish mine detector; Rudolph Gundlach, who designed tanks and armoured cars – but is best known for his invention of the Gundlach Rotary Periscope; Jerzy Dabrowski, the lead aeronautical engineer who designed the famous Polish PZL 37 Los Medium Bomber; Wladyslaw J. Swiatecki, who invented the slip bomb device (which the British claimed to have invented) and many others.

Needless to say, because of the clandestine nature of their work it was essential that the Polish scientists maintained their anonymity. Consequently few are recognized by the West today even decades after the end of the war. Sad to say that the inventions are better known than the men who invented them.

Poland figures very prominently in the world of science and engineering, and its illustrious men and women have made extraordinary discoveries and contributions to the world of chemistry, engineering, electronics, astronomy, microbiology, neurology, computer science, mathematics, physics, and many other specializations.

Presented here a few of the inventions developed by Poland during World War II, as well as some background information about the ingenious Polish men who invented them.

Jozef Stanislaw Kosacki     Polish Mine Detector
During the War Kosacki’s name had to be kept classified in order to protect his family, which remained trapped in Nazi-occupied Poland. Most of his patents were submitted under pseudonyms, including “Józef Kos,” “Kozacki” and “Kozak.” Consequently, in postwar historiography, his surname is often given incorrectly.
The Polish Mine Detector weighed just under 30 pounds and could be operated by one man. It had two coils, one of which was connected to an oscillator which generated a current of an acoustic frequency. The other coil was connected to an amplifier and a telephone. When the coils came into proximity of a metallic object the balance between the coils was disrupted causing the telephone to report a signal.

The basic design has remained unchanged and was used by British forces during the 1991 Gulf War. The Mark 4c version was used by the British Army until 1995.

Two soldiers of the British Eight Army, El Alamein WW2 using Polish Mine-Detectors
After the war Kosacki returned to Poland, where he became the pioneer of electronics and nuclear machinery. For many years he held the Chair in electronics at the Institute for Nuclear Research at Świerk and was also a Professor at the Military Technical Academy in Warsaw. He died in 1990 and was buried with Military Honors.
——————————————————–
 Waclaw Struszynski    –  High Frequency Direction Finding System (Huff Duff)
Waclaw Struszynski (1905 – 1980) was a Polish electronic engineer. He worked at the British Admiralty Signal Establishment during World War II where he led a team of scientists in the development of a sophisticated high frequency radio direction finding system, also known as HF/DF (nick-named Huff-Duff). The team encountered initial engineering problems with the system due to the effects of the superstructure on the wave front of arriving radio signals, but these problems were overcome with Struszynski’s  technical leadership.
——————————————-
  Marceli Struszynski      Polish Chemist
Marceli Struszyński (1880 – 1959) was a Polish chemist. He was the father of Wacław Struszyński.
His field of research was based on analytical chemistry and he developed an original classification of aions.
————————————————–
 Jerzy Dabrowski     (1899 – 1967) was a Polish aeronautical engineer.
    He was the lead designer of the famous Polish PZL.37 Łoś Medium Bomber and very advanced for its time. It was an undertaking of enormous significance for Dabrowski as he had not ever worked on an airplane of this type and size.
In 1924, Dąbrowski designed and built his first aircraft – an ultralight D-1 Cykacz (Ticker) bi-plane at the Central Aviation Workshops in Warsaw. The PZL.37 could carry over 5000 lb of bombs (2500 kg) over a distance of 900 miles (1500 km) and 2200 lb (1000 kg) over 1400 miles (2200 km). When World War II broke out, only 100 of these planes had been manufactured. During the Invasion, Dąbrowski escaped to Romania and then to England where he worked as a Technical Officer with the Polish Air Force.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l9JtAFOt9Uc

  Rudolph Gundlach    –    Gundlach Rotary Periscope
(1894-1957) He was a Polish engineer and inventor and head of the design division of the Armoured Weapons Development Office. He is famous for the invention of the Gundlach Rotary Periscope. It permitted 360 degree vision and was designed in such a way that the observer could view forward or back without having to adjust their seat, thereby greatly improving comfort and increased the angle of view. The design was incorporated in virtually every tank built after 1940. He is also credited with having designed the Ursus wz 29 armoured car. Moreover he guided the design process for the prototypes of the 7TP light tank and the 10 TP fast tank. (the first implemented in TKS and 7TP Polish tanks.)
In accordance with the terms of the Polish-British pre-war military cooperation, the patent was sold to Vickers-Armstrong. Subsequently the Vickers Tank Periscope MK.IV was built into all British tanks (such as Crusader, Churchill, Valentine, Cromwell). After the invasion of Poland, Germany, USSR and Romania captured this equipment, and were able to copy the specifications. In the Soviet Union, the Gundlach periscope was renamed the MK-4 and implemented in all tanks (including the T-34 and T-70).
The Axis retro-fitted the periscope in their tanks and APCs, including those of Italy, Romania, Hungary, Finland and Japan.) The technology was later transferred to the United States and implemented as the M6 periscope in all US tanks (M3/M5 Stuart, M4 Sherman and others). After the Second World War the technology was adopted thorough the whole world.
In 1929 Gundlach invented the armoured car. Its design was based on the chassis of the Ursus – a 2-ton truck (Italian S.P.A. 25C modified by Ursus Mechanical Works in Warsaw). The armored body was built by CWS in Warsaw.  Originally, the vehicule was armed with a French 37 mm low velocity gun in the turret front, 7.92 mm machine guns in the turret left-rear and right-rear at 120 degrees to the gun (all operated by the commander), and another 7.92 mm MG in the hull rear (operated by the rear gunner).
In 1947, after long drawn-out court battles, he finally received a substantial payment for his periscope patent from some of the producers of his invention. It allowed him to buy a farm near Paris, which he used as his home until his death.
Piotr Wilniewczyc and Jan Skrzypinski 
Vis Pistol & Mors Submachine Gun
It was designed by Piotr Wilniewczyc and Jan Skrzypinski in 1930 at Lucznik Arms Factory in Radom. It is one of the finest handguns ever produced and is highly sought after and prized by avid collectors.The handgun was very accurate and stable and most stresses were absorbed and not passed on the shooter. Moreover, it remained reliable even after firing more than 6,000 rounds. The Vis was one of the best military pistols of the period. After Poland collapsed, the Nazis took over the Radom Armory and continued the production of Vis under the new name of 9mm Pistole 645 (p). P meaning Polnisch. In the first series of pistols, the Germans inscribed “ VIS Mod.35 “ and “P.35(p)” on the left side of the firearm. By 1945, up to 380,000 pistols were produced and used by German paratroopers and police. The Germans moved production to Steyr in Austria, for fear that Polish technicians working in the armory would supply the Home Army with weapons.But unknown to the Germans, the Polish Underground in Warsaw were secretly producing Vis barrels, and several hundred pistols had already been manufactured from parts smuggled out of the Steyr factory. These weapons were used by the Poles during the Warsaw Uprising, and other battles.
In August 1992, the Lucznik Arms Factory reintroduced the Vis pistol for the collector’s market. Some 27 pistols were produced according to the original plans and specifications.
Between 1936 and 1938, Piotr Wilniewczyc and Jan Skrzypinski designed the submachine gun wz.39 Mors (Mors is Latin for death, Polish for walrus), It was chosen as the standard submachine gun of the Polish Army unfortunately its production was halted when war broke out.
 Jerzy Rudlicki
( V-Tail for Aircraft) was a Polish aerospace engineer who invented the V-tail configuration for aircraft. It combined the ailerons and elevators into one system. He was the main designer of the Polish Plage i Laśkiewicz works and designed aircraft under the Lublin brand. In 1943 Rudlicki created an updated version of the American B-17 Flying Fortress.Editors Note:  Many military planes since then have incorporated the V-tail, foremost the US Stealth Bomber,
Wladyslaw J. Swiatecki
(Slip Bomb Device), (1895-1944) was a Polish inventor and airman.He flew in the War of Liberation for Poland 1918 – 1920 and decorated with the order Virtuti Militari, the highest Polish decoration for bravery. Wladyslaw J. Świątecki invented the slip bomb device patented in 1926. Although the device was intended to be used for the Karas light bomber, the device was handed over to other European air forces before the war. The slip device was modified for use in the Lancasters of the 9, 12 and 617 Squadrons of the Royal Air Force for the use of Grand Slam and Tallboy giant aerial bombs. The Boeing B-29 was modified to carry Grand Slam and Tallboy and the giant 42000 lb T-12 bomb; the slip device (The D-9 carrier) was a modification of the Swiatecki bomb slip. These weapons were the most successful air dropped bombs before the atomic bomb. In Project Harken and Project Ruby the Swiatecki devices performed flawlessly. Swiatecki died in April 1944 and was buried in Edinburgh.
His slip device was the subject of debate at the Royal Commission on Awards to Inventors from 1946 to 1955. The Ministry claimed the device was invented at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough and developed by Vickers Armstrongs. The family received an ex gratia award of £350.
Jan Czochralski
was a Polish chemist who invented the Czochralski process, which is used to grow single crystals and is used in the production of semiconductor wafers. He was years ahead of his time. His discovery was published in a German chemistry journal, entitled, “ Ein neues Verfahren zur Messung der Kristallisationsgeschwindigkeit der Metalle” [A new method for the measurement of the crystallization rate of metals]. Finally, in 1950 American Bell Labs used his method to grow single germanium crystals followed by the production of suitable semiconductors. From 1917 to 1928, Czochralski was in charge of the research laboratory “Metallbank und Metallurgische Gesellschaft” and in 1919 was one of the founding members, and President (until 1925) of the German Society for Metals Science (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Metallkunde). He moved to Poland in 1928 at the request of Polish President Ignacy Mościcki, and became the Professor of Metallurgy and Metal Research at the Chemistry Department of the Warsaw University of Technology. During World War II he was one of a team of engineers involved in the development and construction of the R wz. 42 hand grenade, or Sidlowka, for the Home Army (Armia Krajowa). The design of the Sidlowka was partially based on an earlier model of the Filipinka grenade, also produced by the Polish Underground, which in turn was based on the Polish ET-38 anti-tank grenade, produced before the war. Its primer and the detonator were designed by two Polish engineers in Warsaw, pyrotechnician Władysław Pankowski and engineer Józef Michałowski. It was a fragmentation grenade with a P-42 friction primer and a 4.5 second delay time. Until the end of the World War II, an estimated 350,000 R-42 were produced in Polish underground factories. A large number of such grenades were used in the Warsaw Uprising and other battles of Operation Tempest.
“What a wacky world, Bill Gates is the richest man on earth and most people don’t even know how to pronounce “Czochralski!” (pronounced cho-HRAL-skee) (Microwave Hall of Fame, Part I)
Wacław Zawrotny and Seweryn Wielanier 
Blyskawica submachine gun  
The Blyskawica, meaning “lightning” was a submachine gun produced during World War II. It was a cheap, home-made machine gun with features so simple that it could easily be manufactured in small workshops by inexperienced engineers. To facilitate production, all parts of the weapon were fastened together with screws and threads rather than bolts and welding,  a method commonly used in firearm production ever since the 17th century. The design of the Blyskawica was based on two of the most popular machine pistols of the era. The external construction with a retractable butt and magazine mounted below the gun was borrowed from the successful German MP-40. The internal design of the mechanism was modeled after the British Sten. Blow-back, with an open bolt, it offered good performance and high reliability.  But unlike the British Sten (and its Polish clone called the Polski Sten) it employed a free-floating firing pin. Production of the weapons were carried on in a workshop officially producing metal fence nets.
  Young Polish Soldier firing ‘Blyskawica’ during Warsaw Uprising
Jozef Maroszek,
Wz. 35 Anti-Tank Rifle. 
Its design was based on the Mauser rifle, with the action modified to sustain the higher pressure of the new cartridge and the barrel lengthened significantly. The first tests began in October 1935 at Brześć and Pionki and demonstrated that the rifle was capable of penetrating a 15 mm steel plate at a distance of 300 metres with similar results against angled steel plate.  It was a bolt-action rifle, fed from a 4-round box magazine. The barrel was equipped with a muzzle brake for greater accuracy and to limit the recoil. The brake absorbed approximately 65% of the shot energy and the recoil was comparable to the standard Mauser rifle, even though the cartridge carried more than twice the amount of propellant. Initially the barrel could only sustain only  up to 30 shots, after which it had to be replaced with a new one. This drawback was immediately corrected and the final prototype could fire approximately 300 shots. The weapon was at first a top secret of the Polish Army, and was known by various codenames.  Until Polish Forces mobilized in 1939, the rifles were kept in closed crates marked, ” Do Not Open: Surveillance Equipment.”
Simultaneously, National Ammunition Factory in Skarżysko-Kamienna was also given the order to develop a 7.92mm cartridge with a muzzle velocity of over 1,000 metres per second.
In comparison to other armour-piercing designs, the DS round was unique – instead of using tungsten or another hard metal, it used lead like that of a standard ball with a steel jacket.The penetration was not through punching the core through the armor but from the impact of the bullet flattening against the plate, transferring kinetic energy to the metal.
Its success required that the bullet sustain a very high velocity. The result was that the bullet was punching a fragment, about 20 mm in diameter, out of the armour, a size larger than the actual rifle caliber. In effect this fragment would then ricochet inside of an armoured vehicle, causing damage to the engine or killing the crew.
After the invasion and collapse of Poland, the German army confiscated large quantities of the kb ppanc wz.35 renaming them as “Panzerbüchse 35 (polnisch)” (abbreviated “PzB 35(p)“).  The Italian army also received many of the rifles, renaming it “fucile controcarro 35(P).” Roughly translated, both German and Italian names mean, “Anti-tank Rifle 35 (Polish).”
————————————
Editors Note: Before World War II broke out, Poland was in the process of developing many prototypes of armoured vehicules (as well as airplanes). Much of Polish arsenal consisted of modified foreign weapons as well as those captured from enemy forces. However, it was not enough to defend her borders at two fronts as she was attacked first by the German army on 1 September 1939 and then by the Soviet Army on 17 September 1939, and simply dismembered!
—————————————–

TK-3 and TKS tankettes

  The Granatnik wz.36 was a Polish grenade launcher designed in originally in 1920 as “wz.30” and later modified in 1936, it  entered service in 1936 becoming standard grenade launcher of the Polish Army and was in use during the German invasion of Poland in 1939.
—————————————————-
BOLESLAW JUREK
20mm wz. 38 Model A (FK-A)
on anti-aircraft tripod mounting
Before WW2, it was classified in Poland as the heaviest machine gun.  By November 1937, a prototype had been completed and testing confirmed that it was far better than foreign guns including the Oerlikon and Madsen.  Though the Model A had a simpler construction, it was deemed more accurate and reliable and capable of penetrating the same armour plates from a distance 200 metres further than previously established.  In 1938, the Model A cannon was accepted by the Polish Army as a tank armament and anti-aircraft weapon. Only a limited number of units were accepted pending the completion of improved models C and D.  Improvements were also made on the heavy and light tripod mountings to accomodate anti-aircraft actions.
The 20mm cannon model A was recoil-operated (short recoil). It could fire single or series shots. It was fed from 5-round box magazines (10-round magazines were in development). As a tank gun, it was fitted with a butt and a telescopic sight.
The ammunition was also developed in Poland, modeled after “long” Solothurn ammunition 20×138 mm (During testing, Solothurn bullets were used with Polish cartridges and were found to be identical to Polish ammunition.)
POLSTEN
Polish-Czech-British Team of Designers
The Polsten was a low cost Polish version of the 20 mm Oerlikon gun. It was as effective as the Oerlikon but much simpler and cheaper to produce. When Germany invaded Poland in 1939, the design team escaped to England and resumed work together with Czech and British designers.  The weapons went into service in March 1944 alongside the Oerlikon, both of which used similar 60 round drum magazines. However the Polsten was designed to use a simpler box magazine of 30 rounds. The Polsten remained in service well into the 1950s.
The Polsten was also mounted on early models of the Centurion tank not coaxially with the main gun but in an independent mount on the left hand side of the turret.
———————————————————-
To reiterate, only some of the Polish inventions have been mentioned here, but there are many more to learn about.
The following video is very interesting as it provides photos of the many variations of Polish tanks, an amphibious version, armoured cars, as well as Polish fighter planes and bombers.
It was impossible to include everything on this blog.
——————————-
——————————

The Nazi Invasion of Poland in 1939

The Germans, Soviets and the Nazi Ukrainians committed mass killing in great numbers of Polish intelligentsia.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

Information

This entry was posted on July 3, 2014 by in Poland, Polish inventions, Polish scientists and intelectuals.

Archives

Blog Stats

  • 1,928,364 hits
July 2014
M T W T F S S
 123456
78910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
28293031  

Opinie wyrażane w tekstach lub komentarzach pod artykułami publikowanymi na łamach JUSTICE4POLAND są własnością autorów i niekoniecznie odpowiadają opiniom wyrażanym przez nasza Redakcje .

 

 

 

 

 

Follow Justice4Poland.com on WordPress.com
https://reignitefreedom.com/

All information, data, and material contained, presented, or provided on justice4poland.com is for educational purposes only. It is not to be construed or intended as providing medical or legal advice. Any views expressed here-in are not necessarily those held by justice4poland.com

ENOUGH LIES

DOSYĆ KŁAMSTW

Walczmy z przejawami antypolonizmu

Translate

Rangitikei Environmental Health Watch

Watching our environment ... our health ... and corporations ... exposing lies and corruption

WOLNI SŁOWIANIE

Celem jest wpłynięcie na pobudkę polskich Słowian, abyśmy odzyskali naszą ojczyznę

Tarig Anter on Protect & Reinvent Democracy

Protect Democracy & Expose Western Liberal Democracy

xebola

"Dla triumfu zła potrzeba tylko, by dobrzy ludzie nic nie robili"

Wirtualna Polonia BIS im. Włodka Kulińskiego

" - Wyśmiewani za niemodny patriotyzm, wierni Bogu i Ojczyźnie podnieśliśmy głowy."

AdNovum

Prawda zawsze zwycięża

Paradigm Shift 101

Looking at the world in a different light

WIERNI POLSCE SUWERENNEJ

Strona Stowarzyszenia Wierni Polsce Suwerennej

Rangitikei Environmental Health Watch

Watching our environment ... our health ... and corporations ... exposing lies and corruption

WOLNI SŁOWIANIE

Celem jest wpłynięcie na pobudkę polskich Słowian, abyśmy odzyskali naszą ojczyznę

Tarig Anter on Protect & Reinvent Democracy

Protect Democracy & Expose Western Liberal Democracy

xebola

"Dla triumfu zła potrzeba tylko, by dobrzy ludzie nic nie robili"

Wirtualna Polonia BIS im. Włodka Kulińskiego

" - Wyśmiewani za niemodny patriotyzm, wierni Bogu i Ojczyźnie podnieśliśmy głowy."

AdNovum

Prawda zawsze zwycięża

Paradigm Shift 101

Looking at the world in a different light

WIERNI POLSCE SUWERENNEJ

Strona Stowarzyszenia Wierni Polsce Suwerennej

Niezłomni.com

Connecting true geography and detailed unfolding of wide variety of crimes perpetrated by German/Ukrainian Nazis and jewish bolsheviks of Soviet Union on the Polish nation.

Niezależne Media Podlasia

Just another WordPress.com site

SKRiBH

zeskrobywanie nieprawdy i czepianie się słów

Warszawska Gazeta

Connecting true geography and detailed unfolding of wide variety of crimes perpetrated by German/Ukrainian Nazis and jewish bolsheviks of Soviet Union on the Polish nation.

Foliarz.pl

Connecting true geography and detailed unfolding of wide variety of crimes perpetrated by German/Ukrainian Nazis and jewish bolsheviks of Soviet Union on the Polish nation.

Spory o historię i współczesność

Prywatny blog historyczny Bohdana Piętki

Kekusz.pl

Connecting true geography and detailed unfolding of wide variety of crimes perpetrated by German/Ukrainian Nazis and jewish bolsheviks of Soviet Union on the Polish nation.

ProstoPoPolsku

Connecting true geography and detailed unfolding of wide variety of crimes perpetrated by German/Ukrainian Nazis and jewish bolsheviks of Soviet Union on the Polish nation.

Wiadomości

Connecting true geography and detailed unfolding of wide variety of crimes perpetrated by German/Ukrainian Nazis and jewish bolsheviks of Soviet Union on the Polish nation.

Connecting true geography and detailed unfolding of wide variety of crimes perpetrated by German/Ukrainian Nazis and jewish bolsheviks of Soviet Union on the Polish nation.

%d bloggers like this: