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Connecting true geography and detailed unfolding of wide variety of crimes perpetrated by German/Ukrainian Nazis and jewish bolsheviks of Soviet Union on the Polish nation.

World War II—The September Campaign


Zbombardowany Wielun

World War II began early on September 1, 1939 when the Armed Forces of Nazi Germany launched an unprovoked attack against Poland. The stage for the war had been set by German demands for territorial concessions from Poland after the Munich Conference of September 1938 and the annexation of the Czech lands in March 1939 by Adolph Hitler’s regime. The way was cleared for the Nazi invasion by the signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact on August 23, 1939 between Germany and the Soviet Union. The treaty contained a secret protocol that outlined a new partition of Poland.

Poland had its own treaties with Britain and France and guarantees of military support should Nazi Germany attack. In particular, the French pledged a full-scale offensive against Germany within fifteen days of the start of hostilities. In the end, the promises of allied assistance did not materialize and Germany was able to concentrate the majority of its army against Poland leaving only light defensive forces on its western front.
On September 1, 1939, Nazi armies attacked Poland, with the Germans throwing almost their entire army and air force into the invasion. On September 17, 1939, Soviet armies joined in and attacked Poland from the east.
Although the Poles knew the attack was coming, Poland’s French and British allies bullied the Poles into delaying mobilization out of fear of “provoking” Hitler. As a result, only part of the Polish army was ready when the attack came.

About one-fourth of Polish army personnel never reached their units. The Polish high command understood what it was up against. Poland could not stop Germany’s industrial might alone. Despite heroic sacrifices by Polish society to modernize the military, the budget of the German air force alone was ten times greater than the entire Polish defense budget.
The Polish campaign lasted from September 1st to early October when the last pockets of resistance were eliminated. Warsaw fell after a brutal two-week siege
on September 27th. The fall of Poland was accelerated when on September 17th a Soviet army of a million men spearheaded by 4,000 tanks invaded Poland from the east. Facing the inevitability of defeat, the Polish government fled the country to Romania where it was interned. Using a special provision of the constitution, the President of Poland, Ignacy Moscicki, transferred his office to Paris where an exile government was formed under General Władysław Sikorski. The Allies gladly accepted Goebbels’ version of the ‘quick war’ because it justified their betrayal. After the war, many outstanding western historians, such as John Wheeler-Bennett in his The Nemesis of Power, used the
Blitzkrieg interpretation. Several documentary film directors took as authentic material the scenes Goebbels staged for his propaganda film, Feldzug in Polen. As a result, many people in the West believe that the Poles did not really fight in 1939, and that the Poles sent the cavalry against the German tanks.”
In reality, the opposite is true. For the German army this first test of the war proved to be one of the most difficult and costly it fought until the Russian campaign in 1941. Despite a large superiority in manpower, vehicles of all kinds, armour and aircraft, four times the unit firepower of Polish forces and the support of a Soviet invasion, the German army did not find the Polish campaign an easy affair. Post-war research shows that the German military used up 80 percent of all of its available ammunition in the battle against Poland. It was to take Germany more than half a year to repair the damages and replenish its supplies. The British military historian John Keegan in his 1995 study “The Battle for History: Refighting World War II” writes: “The Polish army . . . fought more effectively than it has been given credit for. It sustained resistance from September 1st until October 5th, five weeks, which compares highly favourably with the five and a half weeks during which France, Britain, Belgium and Holland kept up the fight in the west the following year.”
Polish forces fought with great heroism throughout the campaign.
The Polish resistance to the Soviet attack, provided largely by lightly armed border guard units, was equally determined. The military losses suffered by Poland in the invasion by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union are heavy: about 67,000 were killed and 134,000 were wounded.
More than half a million Polish soldiers were taken prisoner, about two-thirds captured by the German army. Polish civilian losses as a result of military action were considerable.

At the beginning of the war, the Nazi plan was to inflict terror on the population and break Poland’s will to resist. As he gathered his generals, Hitler ordered them to “kill without pity or mercy all men, women, and children of Polish descent or language… only in this way can we achieve the living space we need.” And yet some claim that Hitler was a Christian. Mobile killing squads would follow the main body of troops, shooting prisoners and any Poles who might organize resistance.

The Soviets planned a similar campaign.
The campaign against Poland was conducted with a cruelty previously unknown in modern European warfare. Polish civilians and prisoners of war were systematically shot by German and Soviet forces. Although the Nazi SS and Einsatzgruppen and the Soviet NKVD committed the worst crimes, regular army and air forces of both totalitarian states were full and willing participants in the slaughter. The German use of Einsatzgruppen or special action units in Poland was a test run.
The death and destruction carried out deliberately by the Wehrmacht and the police during the period of military control of the country between September 1 and October 25, 1939 was merciless and systematic.

Five hundred thirty-one towns and villages were burned and over 714 executions took place with over 16,000 civilian victims, most of them Christian Poles.

meeting_of_the_allies
The Occupation
From the beginning of the German Occupation of Poland, it was clear that it would differ from every military occupation previously known in modern history. The
murderous policies carried out against civilians during the actual military campaign had already signaled the demonic character that it would take. During the first four months of the occupation more than 50,000 civilians were executed by the new Nazi Regime. The majority of these victims—about 43,000—were Christians. Nazi policies in Poland were based primarily on a perverse pseudo-scientific racist ideology that relegated Poles along with the Jews to sub-human categories.

The Jewish genocide is well known all over the world.

Less well-known are the racial ideas about Poles that were the engine of Nazi genocidal policies against the Christian population of Poland.
Anti-Polish attitudes common during the period of German colonial domination of Polish lands took on an even more racial and virulent tone during the Weimar Period (1919–33) after the loss of the Polish territories and the rebirth of Poland.
These anti-Polish views were incorporated into Nazi ideology, propaganda, and education after Hitler’s rise to power in 1933. This ideology was used not only by the regime, but also by individual Germans to justify their murderous and genocidal actions by the alleged inhuman and bestial character of Poles and their allegedly long history of barbaric aggression and treachery vis-à-vis Germans.

The anti-Polish sentiments continue to these days.

The anti-Polish claims “were and still are expressed by some in vicious and derogatory terms describing Poles as ‘Asiatic’ and ‘semi-Asians’ who inhabited dens and resembled animals. According to Nazi scientists and scholars like Albrecht Penck, a Berlin geography professor, Germans had created the only culture that existed in Poland.” These racial stereotypes toward Poles were not only taught in the schools, but teachers were even instructed by textbook authors to encourage active hostility to Poland and Poles in their students. In texts used in German schools a decade before the Nazis took power Poles, in Rossini’s words, “were said to be less educated, less cultured and slovenly.

Furthermore, Poles were commonly portrayed as dangerous and aggressive beasts who stole territory from Germany. Nazi propaganda took over many of the myths of the Weimer period in a more racialized form and underlined that, in addition to their sub-human characteristics, Poles were the mortal enemies of the German Reich. The combination became the warrant for German genocidal policies against Poles during the more than five year occupation of Poland.
The occupation of Poland targeted Jewish and Christian citizens of Poland in different ways. During the first two years it was the Christians who bore more heavily the brunt of Nazi terror as the occupiers sought to exterminate the leadership and intelligentsia, turn ordinary citizenry into slave laborers of the Reich and begin the process of replacing the rural population with German settlers.
SS commanders, including Reinhold Heydrich, saw ethnic Poles as their main foe rather than the Jews of Poland during the early part of the occupation.
Nazi forces did, of course, target Poland’s Jews in special ways, burning or desecrating synagogues, killing individual Jews, abusing and humiliating others and eventually relegating them to ghettos.
The first task for Hitler’s minions, though, was to eliminate any Poles who could be considered leaders. By October, German authorities in western Poland, often aided by local ethnic Germans, rounded up government officials, teachers, clergy, and business people. Victims were either killed or sent to concentration camps.

Niemcy roztrzeliwuja Polakow

A young priest from Rypin, Stanislaus Grabowski, recalled what happened after his arrest:———-
“It was 9 P.M. . . . We heard laughing, footsteps, and suddenly very heavy strikes with whips. At the same time a man cried out loudly “Jesus, Mary, Joseph.” Looking through the opening in our provisional door, we recognized, lying spread out on the floor, the administrator of an estate, a man well known to us. He was a man of good health, strongly built, about fifty years old. He was flat on the cement floor. Local German boys stood around him, hitting him repeatedly, flogging him mercilessly, and beating him to death. Some got tired, others took their place. The murderous flogging continued. . . . Then there was silence, deadly quiet. They grabbed his legs and pulled the body outside. . . . I counted the blows, one hundred, two hundred, four hundred. So many blows were needed to complete the painful tragedy. Then another man, and then the next, and the next, and so on. . . . In the silence of the night and the seclusion of a basement people were dying, people we knew and respected. I can still hear their cries of helplessness: “Jesus, Mary, My God!.” . . . Around 3 P.M. [the next day] Fr. Gajewski, a woman school inspector, and several principals were taken away in an open truck to the woods at Skrwilno and shot. Their bodies were placed in a grave where over 10,000 members of the Polish intelligentsia were buried. The Germans planted trees and bushes over the grave to try to hide their crime.”

By the beginning of 1942, after the Wannsee Conference and the invasion of the USSR, the direction of Nazi terror and genocidal activities shifted towards the Jews of Poland and now became the official state policy of Nazi Germany forcing as many as possible to leave to Palestine or sending them to concentration camps in which many died of malnutrition, diseases, typhus and executions.
The half of Poland that was taken by Nazi Germany in 1939 was divided into two parts. The Polish Territories which were part of Imperial Germany until 1918, were incorporated directly into the Nazi Reich. Ninety percent of the population of this area, which was slated for thorough Germanization, was ethnically Polish. After the leading citizens, clergy, and intelligentsia of the region were either killed or incarcerated in camps, the Germans began a wholesale deportation of Poles from the area. Over a million Poles had their farms, homes, businesses, and property seized and turned over the Germans and were then deported to Central Poland.

Those who were left behind were to be subjected to de-nationalization. They were no longer to speak Polish or consider themselves Polish. All Polish media, cultural, and educational institutions were closed. The young men were subject to being drafted into the German military.
Between 650,000 and 750,000 ethnic Germans, many from eastern areas taken by the USSR in 1939–40, were resettled in the area. The mass deportations from the newly annexed territories took place during the winter of 1939–40 in freezing cold and under very difficult conditions. The deportees were shipped in cattle cars. The suffering and hunger were immense. Many died, especially the elderly, the sick and children. In addition to the deportation eastward many, especially the young and able-bodied, were shipped to Germany proper for a slave labour.

The central part of Poland, with a Polish population of about twelve million, was renamed the General Government ruled by a Nazi functionary in Kraków.
No Polish newspapers, except those published by the occupiers, were published. Secondary schools, universities and cultural institutions were closed.
As in the annexed western territories, the Germans undertook the systematic extermination of the intelligentsia, clergy and leadership. Politicians, writers, scientists, doctors, artists, teachers, Olympic athletes—none were to be spared.
Polish libraries and archives were burned and the country’s art treasures systematically looted.
Any Poles who survived the war and “extermination through labor” and were not subjects for Germanization were to be sent to newly conquered Siberia or liquidated. In addition to taking money and works of art, Nazi occupiers treated Poland like an economic colony. Peasants were required to give up a large portion of their produce. Special taxes were instituted. Factories, shops and banks were appropriated by the occupiers. Young, able-bodied men and women were taken to Germany for slave labor on farms and in factories. By 1961 any vestige of the Polish nation would disappear forever.

In the Soviet-controlled sector of Poland, matters were just as bad.

The Soviets created their own ideological scale to determine who was to live or to die. It was based not on race, but on social class and consciousness. “Enemies of the people”—those marked for liquidation—were owners of businesses, large farms and estates, managers, officials and civil servants of the Polish State, clergy and intelligentsia.
The “toiling masses” of peasants and especially workers were allegedly a favoured class, but even they were readily marked for re-education in gulags or even extermination if they failed to exhibit proper consciousness, i.e., they retained loyalty to faith, nation, family, and pre-war social traditions over loyalty to the Soviet fatherland and the class struggle.
These primitive sociological categories functioned for the new Soviet administration in the same ways racial stereotypes did for the Nazi regime and they also served to justify terror and mass murder. In addition, the Soviet occupiers favoured the non-Polish population of Eastern Poland over the Polish inhabitants and sought by these preferences, bolstered by lies and propaganda, to incite hatreds and to inflame conflicts between groups.

At the start of the Soviet invasion, local Ukrainian nationalists were encouraged to attack Poles, resulting in sporadic killings that would presage greater atrocities to come.
Captured Polish officers were often executed on the spot by the NKVD. The Soviet authorities’ first goal was to destroy the local Polish leadership. As in the German occupied areas, round ups, arrests, executions and deportation to the gulag were all used. Simultaneously, the Soviets moved against the economic elites, especially anyone engaged in private enterprise. Like the Nazis, the Communists also looted the economic resources of the region.

In February 1940, the NKVD began its second phase of occupation, the mass deportation of almost all Poles from the Soviet occupation zone. Over the course of the next 15 months, over 1.5 million Polish men, women, and children were packed into unheated cattle cars and sent the gulags where many died of hunger, disease, overwork, and execution.
Polish POWs who had fallen into Soviet hands met an even worse fate. Approximately 20,000 Polish officers, mostly well-educated reservists, were executed on Stalin’s orders. The most notorious massacre site was at Katyń in Belarus, but there were many others.

Nad grobem w Katyniu
The Nazis decided to kill a portion of the Poles and leave the rest for the time being as slaves. The Germans never ceased their efforts against the leadership of Polish society, but as the war continued new methods were used.
Large numbers of Poles were rounded up, often at random, and sent to concentration camps where they were either killed or exploited as slave labor.
Slave laborers were treated so brutally that large numbers died. They were starved, beaten, and forced to work until they died. Others were killed by sadistic guards or in mass executions. German authorities, both inside and outside camps, conducted mass shootings or hanging in retaliation for real or perceived offenses against Nazi rule.Many prisoners also died from overwork or diseases brought on by unsanitary conditions and poor diet.
The Germans also attempted to create all-German colonies in the GeneralGovernment part of Poland by deporting or exterminating the local inhabitants and bringing in German settlers. In late 1942 Nazi racial theorists sought to clear part of the region around Zamość of Poles and bring in ethnic Germans to create a German colony.

Over 150,000 people (30 percent of the population) were displaced from their homes. A similar attempt on a smaller scale occurred in Białystok where some 40,000 were displaced. Polish partisans launched fierce attacks on Nazi forces as well as on German colonists in an attempt to halt these German experiments in colonization.
An ancillary part of the campaign of deportation and German colonization was the organized kidnapping of Polish children who had “Germanic” characteristics to be raised as Germans. In all, during the course of the war, about 50,000 children were seized and deported to the Reich.
In the final years of Nazi occupation it seemed as if the very gates of hell had opened in Poland. The Germans increasingly resorted to terror and chaos and violence rather than order and control marked the final stages of Nazi rule.
Polish resistance grew in strength and began to organize increasing attacks on German forces. The Nazi response was overwhelmingly brutal. More than 115 villages were wiped out for hiding Jews or helping partisans. Villages were surrounded and the inhabitants either shot on the spot or transported to death camps.

As German control began to slip in areas of eastern Poland with a large Ukrainian population, Ukrainian nationalists initiated an effort to ethnically cleanse the region of Poles. These lands had been captured by the Soviets at the start of the war and the communists had systematically exploited ethnic tensions. When the Germans pushed out the Soviets in 1941, many, especially ethnic Ukrainians, welcomed the new arrivals. The Soviets had committed genocide against the Ukrainians in the 1930s and the bitter fruit of Polish-Ukrainian rivalry in the 1920s and 1930s allowed the Nazis to recruit Ukrainians into police and auxiliary units that were often used to carry out the dirty work of killing.

As the war began to turn against the Germans, however, Ukrainians took matters into their own hands. Many Ukrainian auxiliaries began to operate in a semi-independent fashion and used their weapons to further the goals of the most extreme nationalist faction among Ukrainians.  The Ukrainians turned on the Poles, especially in provinces like Volhynia (Wołyn). Elements of the Ukrainian Partisan Army (UPA) descended on Polish villages across southeast Poland, killing the inhabitants in the most brutal ways possible.

Polskie dzieci I UPA
Villagers were forced into their churches and burned alive. Killings were often carried out with axes, knives, saws, pitchforks, scythes, and swords. Men were castrated, sawed in half, burned alive. Women were raped, sexually mutilated, hacked apart. The UPA spared no one, not even children. An estimated 60,000 Poles lost their lives, the largest number in Volhynia where the worst violence occurred. As the killings raged, many courageous Ukrainians risked their lives to save Polish neighbors. Ukrainians who were viewed by the UPA as too favourable toward Poles, or who were caught sheltering Poles shared their fate.
Local Nazi forces had no orders and mostly stood aside while the killings occurred, sometimes sheltering Poles, sometimes aiding the UPA killers.

On the evening of August 1, 1944, shots rang out across the city of Warsaw as some 40,000 poorly armed citizen soldiers, including teenagers, men, and women, backed by almost the entire population, attacked the well-equipped, well-fortified German garrison. The first European capital captured by Hitler’s armies was fighting back. Poles decided to retake their capital city back.


Units of Boy Scouts and Girl Guides, some as young as 12 or 13, attacked Nazi panzers armed only with bottles of gasoline. The Poles seized large sections of the city, but failed to take many key fortified strong points, including the bridges across the Vistula River. Losses were heavy, but the Polish citizen soldiers quickly learned from their mistakes.

Hitler’s reaction was furious. He ordered the completed destruction of the city and death of all its inhabitants. Heinrich Himmler confidently predicted “Warsaw will be liquidated; and this city . . . that has blocked our path to the east for seven hundred years . . . will have ceased to exist.”
The Nazi command sent SS police, units of former Soviet soldiers who had deserted to the Nazi cause, and armed the inmates of German military prisons—murderers, rapists, child molesters, and thieves. Behind them came tanks, aircraft, and heavy artillery. Many Nazi units were sent into purely civilian areas where they murdered, raped, and pillaged for days on end, killing men, women, and children without mercy. German and ex- Soviet troops rampaged through hospitals, even maternity wards, killing every living soul.
Nazi forces seized buildings during the day, only to find that the Poles retook them during the night. Fighting raged house to house, room to room.
The most savage fighting occurred in the Old Town, Warsaw’s historic heart. German heavy weapons smashed building after building, driving the defenders back into an ever smaller area. Civilians were used as human shields for German tanks, like the Palestinian children are now in Israel.
As the city fought desperately and the Germans began to bring in reinforcements, the reaction of the Soviets was silence. Soviet forces, which had advanced confidently throughout the summer, stopped within miles of Warsaw. When Allied planes sought to use Soviet airbases to airdrop supplies to the Polish resistance, the Soviets refused and watched on then Germans slaughtering the people of Warsaw. After 63 days of fighting, the defenders of Warsaw, abandoned by their allies and left to face the Nazi army alone, capitulated.
On Hitler’s personal orders, Warsaw was systematically leveled with the ground, block by block, street by street. By the war’s end, one of the great capitals of Europe was a field of rubble, with not a building left standing for miles. In two months some 200,000 civilians had lost their lives due to the mass killings ordered by the German leadership.

The Second Occupation
By the middle of 1945, Soviet forces had driven the Nazis out of Poland. Although the Soviet liberated the Nazi death camps their arrival heralded a new form of oppression. The camps were re-opened to oppress the Polish political prisoners.
The living conditions of the population deteriorated. Hunger was rampant and made worse by Soviet food requisitions. Hunger and malnutrition brought on diseases such as typhus that killed and weaken more people. Virtually the entire infrastructure was in ruins and what remained was mostly for the use of Poland’s new masters. The Soviets also ended up looting a great deal of Polish property, including artwork that was stolen by the Nazis from Poland and then re-stolen and sent to Russia.

In the face of the Soviet NKVD and its Polish henchmen, the Polish underground quickly abandoned efforts to come out into the open as representatives of Poland’s legal government in London. The repression of the Polish underground was severe. For western consumption, the Soviet proclaimed all non-communist members of the resistance to be “fascists” and “collaborators.” Many of the most courageous members of the underground were arrested, tortured, imprisoned, or killed. Many prisoners of the Nazis were released only to be rearrested by the Soviets and sent to concentration camps in Siberia.

The end of Nazi occupation reduced but did not end the arrests, tortures, and executions. Nor did it end the fighting and the killing. From late 1944 through 1956, elements of the Polish underground continued to resist the communist regime. Although the AK ( Armia Krajowa _ The Home Army) officially disbanded in 1945, a number of successor organizations continued to function. In response, the Soviet-directed communist regime mounted a major anti-partisan campaign, committing more troops to the struggle than the U.S committed at the height of the Vietnam War. Communist security forces were especially ruthless, often using summary executions of suspected resistance supporters. In many cases, they simply shot and terrorized people at random.

In 1948, the government offered amnesty to resisters and many accepted the offer (although many were later persecuted in contravention of the amnesty agreement). Active resistance, however, continued until 1956 and some individual resisters did not surrender until the late 1960s.
The Cost of the Catastrophe

World War II was a catastrophe for Poland on a scale that few other countries have experienced at any time in human history. A higher percentage of Poles died than in any other country—21 percent, more if one counts fatalities caused by war related diseases. An estimated three million non-Jewish, Polish citizens were killed. The Nazis killed 2 million Polish Christians, the Soviets perhaps between half a million to a million, and perhaps 100,000 by Ukrainian nationalists.

The city of Warsaw alone lost more people than Britain and the U.S.A. put together. Polish military losses were equally appalling— an estimated 360,000 died in battle, of wounds, or as prisoners of war, a number greater than any European country save the USSR and Germany. In addition, a great number of Poles were scattered to all parts of the world. Poland’s pre-war population of 35 million dropped to 23 million in 1945.

Cultural and professional elites were the hardest hit: 45 percent of doctors and dentists were killed by the Nazis; 57 percent of attorneys; 30 percent of engineers and technicians; 40 percent of professors; 15 percent of teachers; and 20 percent of clergy. This does not begin to consider the number of professionals and community leaders killed or imprisoned by the Soviets and their Polish puppet government.
With Warsaw many Polish cities were also devastated. Of the main historic centers of Poland only Kraków remained intact.
Most major industrial and commercial enterprises were also completely wrecked and what remained was often looted by the Soviets who dismantled whole factories and shipped them to Russia.
Poland itself effectively ceased to be independent. Although the local communist authorities would gain some measure of autonomy after 1956, virtually all major decisions had to be approved from Moscow. The country’s borders were shifted drastically and about a quarter of its population internally displaced.
Despite these catastrophes, the Poles remained defiant.

Poland was the site of the most terrible genocides in world history.
The martyrdom of the Polish nation – is less well known and materials for its study sadly are not as readily available.
It was a true horror that was visited on the Polish land in the middle of the last century imposed in genocidal actions of the Nazis and Soviets.
The Polish experience is unique in a number of ways. It did not end in 1945. It began in 1939 and continued to 1948. Poland was also the victim of two criminal regimes: Nazi Germany and Stalin’s Soviet Union.

On another level, the Polish experience is almost a paradigm for genocide in several of its main characteristics.
First, it was the result of specific modern ideologies which marked for extinction of Poles in general or significant and leading segments of Polish society based on primitive, pseudo-scientific theories of race or socio-economic class. These ideologies served to both identify and stigmatize the victims and to justify their liquidation; degenerate ideas of dominion over men, akin to ideas of dominion over Nature” which “led to paroxysms of revolution and war at the expense of millions of human beings destroyed physically or spiritually.
These ideologies were bolstered by old, pre-existing, virulently negative stereotypes of the victims, as well as long nursed historical grievances and alleged wrongdoing to the perpetrators by their victims.
These genocidal crimes were committed in an area with a long history of colonialism. In fact, the Polish lands had been the site of two recently failed empires: Imperial Germany and Tsarist Russia. That genocide often takes place in the wake of colonial collapse and is part of its legacy. Attempts to re-establish an older imperial order and the heritage of divide and conquer policies used by the previous empires to hold their subject peoples in thrall both contributed to genocide in Poland.

The genocide against the Polish nation was marked by a determined effort not only to destroy the biological fabric of the people through slavery, forced “labour to extinction”, mass deportations, starvation and murder on a massive scale, but also by the expropriation of the wealth of the victims and a comprehensive campaign to destroy Polish culture, language, religious faith and institutions.
Singled out for special and immediate extinction were the nation’s leaders teachers, clergy and intellectuals. Those not immediately marked for extinction were to be left stripped of their culture, deprived of learning, and subject to an intensive promotion of pornography and alcohol consumption ( especially by the Soviets) to complete their debasement.

In short, it was a comprehensive, planned effort to wipe out all vestiges of national memory, dignity and culture as a prelude to the physical destruction of the Polish people over the course of a generation. The Poles resisted these efforts to destroy them as best they could in a wide variety of ways. Yet resistance itself carried grave dangers to Polish society and culture.
War against pitiless and bestial enemies could in its own way debase or even destroy the values the resistance was seeking to defend.
The resistance against Nazis and Soviets was the story of armed struggle by deception and sanctioned lawlessness often without quarter. It shows how victims themselves become as hardened and merciless as their jailors. The weak had to use every advantage to prevail against the might of powerful and cruel occupiers who recognized no restraint on their own power.
In such situations the resistance daily faced the danger of becoming like its adversaries and the temptation to compromise the principles of civilized society.
Thus, resistance could itself aid in the destruction of the culture threatened by the occupiers. The Polish Underground was well aware of these problems and consciously sought to avoid being drawn into the trap that the war against genocide presented.

Despite the best efforts of Poles to maintain a legitimate and sane order, albeit underground, to preserve the best values of the culture and maintain religious faith, the wartime generation that endured the most terrible military occupation in modern history, who saw its families, contemporaries and leaders slaughtered, its biological, cultural and spiritual heritage of 1,000 years marked for utter extinction. The difficulties—faced by all survivors of genocide—were compounded for the Poles by the fact that their “liberators” were themselves accomplices of the Nazis in genocide.Thus, the nightmare did not end because Poland was incorporated into the new Communist Empire in East Central Europe.

On the positive side, the experience of genocide and resistance between 1939 and 1948 brought a new awareness to Poles. It was out of this experience that the next wave of resistance would come as a self limiting revolution based on a principled non-violence and drawing on the rich cultural and spiritual heritage of the nation.
The Solidarity movement, even though cleverly infiltrated again, and the example it has provided to the World is clearly the product of the spiritual and cultural reflections on the Genocide to which Poland was subjected during nightmare of the Second World War.

It gives hope that, however imperfectly and haltingly, the world can yet learn from history.

Sources;

http://wewillspeakout.blogspot.com.au/

http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/ww2/poland-genocide.htm#

http://fcit.usf.edu/Holocaust/people/USHMMPOL.HTM#

 

 

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This entry was posted on June 2, 2014 by in Germany, Poland, Polish history, World War 2.

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Connecting true geography and detailed unfolding of wide variety of crimes perpetrated by German/Ukrainian Nazis and jewish bolsheviks of Soviet Union on the Polish nation.

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